Cavalier, Jean

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Cavalier, Jean

(zhäN kävälyā`), 1681?–1740, French Protestant soldier, a leader of the CamisardsCamisards
, Protestant peasants of the Cévennes region of France who in 1702 rebelled against the persecutions that followed the revocation (1685) of the Edict of Nantes (see Nantes, Edict of).
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. From his home in the Cévennes region of France, he fled to Geneva (1701) when persecution of the Protestants became intolerable, but he returned when he knew that the Protestants were about to rebel. As chief leader of the Camisards, he showed remarkable military genius. In 1704 he made peace with Marshal Villars and received from King Louis XIV a commission as colonel and a pension. The peace was repudiated by his followers because it did not restore the Edict of Nantes (see Nantes, Edict ofNantes, Edict of,
1598, decree promulgated at Nantes by King Henry IV to restore internal peace in France, which had been torn by the Wars of Religion; the edict defined the rights of the French Protestants (see Huguenots).
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). Distrustful of the king, Cavalier fled from France. He fought for the duke of Savoy and later for England in Spain against the French. His later years were spent in Great Britain, where he was given a pension, made major general, and appointed governor of the isle of Jersey. The Memoirs of the Wars of the Cévennes, published in 1726 and dedicated to Lord Carteret, is attributed to Cavalier.


See biography by A. P. Grubb (1931).

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References in periodicals archive ?
The "Colonel Cavalier'"mentioned in a letter to the Duke of Newcastle in January 1726/7 (177) is described as "a French officer, who wrote his own Memoirs, and the History of the Civil Wars, in the Cevennes, in the Reign of Lewis XIV." There is no entry for Cavalier to provide clarification in the index, but presumably this is Jean Cavalier (1681-1740), a Camisard leader who became an English general in 1735 and, in 1738, was appointed lieutenant governor of Jersey.
Randall focuses on the emigre prophets Elie Marion, Durand Fage, and Jean Cavalier de Sauve in her analysis of French Protestant testimonials, their deployment of Enlightenment rationalism, and their plea for freedom of conscience.