Jean Cocteau

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Related to Jean Cocteau: Gertrude Stein
Jean Cocteau
Jean Maurice Eugène Clément Cocteau
BirthplaceMaisons-Laffitte, France
Novelist, poet, artist, filmmaker

Cocteau, Jean

(zhäN kôktō`), 1889–1963, French writer, visual artist, and filmmaker. He experimented audaciously in almost every artistic medium, becoming a leader of the French avant-garde in the 1920s. His first great success was the novel Les Enfants Terribles (1929), which he made into a film in 1950. Surrealistic fantasy suffuses his films and many of his novels and plays. Among his best dramatic works are Orphée (1926) and La Machine infernale (1934, tr. 1936), in which the Orpheus and Oedipus myths are surrealistically adapted to modern circumstances. His films include The Blood of a Poet (1933), Beauty and the Beast (1946), and Orphée (1949). Among other works are ballets, sketches, monologues, whimsical drawings, and the text (written with Stravinsky) for the opera-oratorio Oedipus Rex (1927).


See his autobiography; comp. from his writings by R. Phelps (tr. 1970); biographies by F. Brown (1968), E. Sprigge and J.-J. Kihm (1968), and F. Steegmuller (1970); M. Crosland, ed., Cocteau's World (tr. 1972).

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Cocteau, Jean


Born July 5, 1889, at Maisons Laffitte, Seine et Oise; died Oct. 11, 1963, at Milly-la-Forét, Seine et Oise. French writer and screenwriter. Member of the Académie Fran-çaise (1955).

Cocteau began as a symbolist poet. His output during World War I (1914–18) and the postwar period displayed cubist-futurist and dadaist traits (the collection Poems, 1920). Cocteau’s later poetry developed from the “neoclassicism” of the narrative poem Plain Chant (1923) to the surrealism of the collection Opera (1927). His best-known novels include Thomas the Impostor (1923; Russian translation, 1925) and Les Enfants terribles (1929). Cocteau adapted classical and Shakespearean tragedies in an attempt to update them. His other plays include the psychological monodrama The Human Voice (1930; Russian translation, 1971) and Intimate Relations (1938). In the 1930’s, Cocteau became a screenwriter and director (the films Orphée, 1950; Blood of a Poet; and Le Testament d’Orphée, 1960).


Oeuvres complétes, vols. 1–11. Lausanne, 1947–51.
Lannes, R. Jean Cocteau; une étude. Poems and bibliography selected by H. Parisot and P. Seghers. New revised edition. [Paris, 1964.]
Cahiers [1–2. Paris, 1969–71].
In Russian translation:
“Proza i stikhi.” Sovremennyi Zapad, 1923, book 4. (See A. Efros, “Tri silueta [Apolliner, Sandrar, Kokto]”.)
“Trudnye roditeli.” In the collection P’esy sovremennoi Frantsii. Moscow, 1960.


Istoriia frantsuzskoi literatury, vol. 4. Moscow, 1963.
Kihm, J.-J. Cocteau. Paris, 1960.
Brosse, J. Cocteau. [Paris, 1970.] (Bibliography.)
Steegmuller, F. Cocteau. [London, 1970.] (Bibliography.)
Chanel, P. Album Cocteau. [Paris, 1970.]


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Un estudio monografico que recogiera las diversas propuestas de Jean Cocteau implicaria analizar obras de disciplinas y lenguajes muy diversos que requeriria el desarrollo de una extensa monografia.
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(12) Many artists were inspired by the Greek singer, of course, but his story's particular appeal for Williams lay in its combination of "poetry, love, and death;' the same elements "that drew Cocteau to it." (13) Jean Cocteau engaged with the Orpheus myth in three films and a play: Orphee (1926), (14) Le Sang d'un porte (1930), Orphee (1950) (15) and Le Testament d'Orphee (1960).
The picture's story is based on a noted one-woman play first performed in 1930, written by French poet and novelist Jean Cocteau. The plot is centered on the mental breakdown of a woman whose lover of five years is about to leave her and marry somebody else.
Based on Jean Cocteau's classic film La Belle et la Bte, it features choreography by Creative Wales Award winner Darius James and a score by Welsh composer David Westcott.
Included are essays originally published in Chinese, Danish, French, German, Italian, Japanese, Russian, Spanish, and Yiddish that have not previously been available in English, as well as the work of several visual artists, such as James Montgomery Flagg (creator of the "Uncle Sam Wants You" poster), French playwright and artist Jean Cocteau, and Chuck Jones (of Bugs Bunny fame).
Maxim's, which is now owned by fashion designer Pierre Cardin, has over the years been a regular haunt for Jean Cocteau, Edward VII, Marcel Proust, Maria Callas, the Duke and Duchess of Windsor, Barbra Streisand and Barbara Hutton.