Jean Alfred Fournier

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Fournier, Jean Alfred

 

Born May 12, 1832, in Paris; died there Dec. 25, 1914. French physician; a pioneer in the study of syphilis.

Fournier graduated from the University of Paris in 1852; he became a professor in the university’s faculty of medicine in 1863, and head of an independent clinic for cutaneous and venereal diseases in 1880. In his Study of Chancre (1897), written jointly with his teacher P. Ricord, Fournier proved the existence of two different chancres—the hard chancre of syphilis, or true chancre, and the nonsyphilitic venereal sore called chancroid, or soft chancre. In his subsequent works Fournier studied the morphology of syphilitic skin lesions, congenital syphilis, syphilis económica (contracted from infected articles of daily use), syphilis of the internal organs and nervous system, and treatment.

Fournier regarded syphilis as a disease of the entire organism. He showed the syphilitic nature of Bayle’s disease. In 1901 he founded a French society for medical and moral prophylaxis of venereal diseases. Certain skin diseases and symptoms of syphilis—for example, the eruption that is also known as syphilitic roseola—have been named after Fournier.

WORKS

In Russian translation:
Sífilis mozga. St. Petersburg, 1881.
Sífilis i brak. Tver’, 1882.
Uchenie o sifilise, fasecs. 1–2. Moscow, 1899.
Uklonenie v razvitii pri nasledstvennom sifilise. St. Petersburg, 1899.
Rukovodstvo k patologii i terapii sifilisa, fasc. 4: Tretichnyi period. St. Petersburg, 1903.
Pozdnii vlorichnyi sifilis. St. Petersburg, 1908.

A. S. RABEN

References in periodicals archive ?
[1] Even though this clinical entity is eponymously credited to the Parisian venereologist Jean-Alfred Fournier, who described it as a fulminant gangrene of the penis and scrotum in young men, [2] Baurienne in 1764 and Avicenna in 1877 had described the same disease earlier.
This condition is named after Professor Jean-Alfred Fournier, the French venereologist who in 1883, used the term fulminant gangrene" of the penis and scrotum for a sudden onset, rapidly progressing idiopathic scrotal gangrene in young men.
Fournier's gangrene is a type of necrotizing fasciitis (NF) or gangrene usually affecting the perineum and/or external genitalia rapidly spreading to contiguous fascia at a rate up to 1 inch per hour.[sup.1] It was first described by Baurienne in 1764 but it was named after a French venereologist, Jean-Alfred Fournier in 1883.[sup.2] Infection typically arise when polymicrobial commensal organisms are introduced from the gastrointestinal, genitourinary systems or skin into an immunosuppressed host.
It was only in 1875 that Jean-Alfred Fournier firmly advanced syphilis as the cause of tabes dorsalis.