Pale of Settlement

(redirected from Jewish Pale)

Pale of Settlement

 

the part of the Russian empire in which Jews were permitted to reside on a permanent basis. It included the provinces of Bessarabia, Vil’na, Volyn’, Grodno, Ekaterinoslav, Kovno, Minsk, Mogilev, Podol’sk, Poltava, Tavrida, Kherson, Chernigov, and Kiev.

The pale of settlement was created in the late 18th century, when the Right-bank Ukraine, Byelorussia, and Lithuania—all with large Jewish populations—were ceded to Russia in the partitions of Poland. Only “local Jews” were permitted to live in Courland Province, the Caucasus, and Middle Asia. Within the pale of settlement, Jews were forbidden to live in the villages or in the cities of Kiev, Sevastopol’, and Yalta. Those permitted to live outside the pale were merchants of the first guild, persons with higher and specialized education, artisans, and soldiers fulfilling compulsory military service; the descendants of persons in these three categories were also authorized to live outside the pale.

For the Jews the pale of settlement was the most onerous burden resulting from their unequal status as a nation (natsiia, nation in the historical sense). The pale of settlement was abolished by the law of Mar. 20 (Apr. 2), 1917, On the Abolition of Religious and National Restrictions.

REFERENCE

Gessen, Iu. I. Zakon i zhizn’: Kak sozidalis’ ogranichitel’nye zakony o zhitel’stve evreev v Rossii. St. Petersburg, 1911.
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In the 19th century, Birmingham became the magnet for people from further afield - in particular, from Cornwall, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, Italy and the Jewish pale of settlement in the Russian Empire.
Born Moishe Segal in 1887 to a poor Jewish family outside Vitebsk in modern Belarus, Chagall never forgot his life in the Jewish pale -- the area to which Catherine II confined the jews of her empire in the 18th century -- and recalls images of Vitebsk in each painting.
At the concert last month, a quartet sang "Aylye Lyulye Lyulye," a Yiddish lullaby from the time of the Jewish Pale, when Russian Jews were required to live in one region of Eastern Europe in the 19th century.
It challenged older perspectives on the supposed clash between socialism and nationalism by highlighting the common sources of both beliefs in the culture of Jewish student radicalism and in the ranks of the so-called "half-intellectuals," the youthful rebels of the Jewish Pale of Settlement.
Another potentially mythological note is Nevelson's conjuring of a Russian past of timber merchants and junkyards in the Jewish Pale of Settlement, a background her family took as cultural baggage from Kiev to the Maine coast.
157) Bender fails to realize that the "capitalist bloodsucker" was the fundamental trope of Russian labour radicalism, from the Jewish Pale to the Donbass coal mines.
At the concert last month, a quartet of choir members sang "Aylye Lyulye Lyulye," a Yiddish lullaby from the time of the Jewish Pale, when Russian Jews were required to live in one region of Eastern Europe in the 19th century.

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