Chiang Kai-shek

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Chiang Kai-shek

(jyäng kī-shĕk, jyäng), 1887–1975, Chinese Nationalist leader. He was also called Chiang Chung-cheng.

After completing military training with the Japanese Army, he returned to China in 1911 and took part in the revolution against the Manchus (see Ch'ingCh'ing
or Manchu
, the last of the Imperial dynasties of China. Background

The Ch'ing dynasty was established by the Manchus, who invaded China and captured Beijing in 1644, and lasted until 1911.
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). Chiang was active (1913–16) in attempts to overthrow the government of Yüan Shih-kaiYüan Shih-kai
, 1859–1916, president of China (1912–16). From 1885 to 1894 he was the Chinese resident in Korea, then under Chinese suzerainty. He supported the dowager empress, Tz'u Hsi, against the reform movement (1898) of Emperor Kuang Hsü, and she
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. When Sun Yat-senSun Yat-sen
, Mandarin Sun Wen, 1866–1925, Chinese revolutionary. He was born near Guangzhou into a farm-owning family. He attended (1879–82) an Anglican boys school in Honolulu, where he came under Western influence, particularly that of Christianity.
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 established (1917) the Guangzhou government, Chiang served as his military aide. In 1923 he was sent by Sun to the USSR to study military organization and to seek aid for the Guangzhou regime. On his return he was appointed commandant of the newly established (1924) Whampoa Military Academy; he grew more prominent in the KuomintangKuomintang
[Chin.,=national people's party] (KMT), Chinese and Taiwanese political party. Sung Chiao-jen organized the party in 1912, under the nominal leadership of Sun Yat-sen, to succeed the Revolutionary Alliance.
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 after the death (1925) of Sun Yat-sen.

In 1926 Chiang launched the Northern ExpeditionNorthern Expedition,
in modern Chinese history, the military campaign by which the Kuomintang party overthrew the warlord-backed Beijing government and established a new government at Nanjing.
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, leading the victorious Nationalist army into Hankou, Shanghai, and Nanjing. Chiang followed Sun Yat-sen's policy of cooperation with the Chinese Communists and acceptance of Russian aid until 1927, when he dramatically reversed himself and initiated the long civil war between the Kuomintang and the Communists. By the end of 1927, Chiang controlled the Kuomintang, and in 1928 he became head of the Nationalist government at Nanjing and generalissimo of all Chinese Nationalist forces. Thereafter, under various titles and offices, he exercised virtually uninterrupted power as leader of the Nationalist government.

In 1936 Gen. Chang Hsüeh-liangChang Hsüeh-liang
or Zhang Xueliang
, 1898–2001, Chinese warlord, son of Chang Tso-lin. On the death (1928) of his father, he succeeded as military governor of Manchuria. He was then known as Chang Hsiao-liang but later changed his name.
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 seized him at Xi'an, to force him to terminate the civil war against the Communists in order to establish a united front against the encroaching Japanese. Despite the resultant truce, Chiang's release, and the 1937 outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese WarSino-Japanese War, Second,
1937–45, conflict between Japanese and Chinese forces for control of the Chinese mainland. The war sapped the Nationalist government's strength while allowing the Communists to gain control over large areas through organization of guerrilla units.
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, the agreement between Nationalists and Communists soon broke down. By 1940 Chiang's best troops were being used against the Communists in the northwest. After the Japanese took Nanjing and Hankou, Chiang moved his capital to Chongqing.

As the Sino-Japanese War merged with World War II, Chiang's international prestige increased. He attended the Cairo Conference (1943) with Franklin Delano Roosevelt and Winston Churchill. He and his third wife, Soong Mei-ling (see SoongSoong
, Mandarin Song, Chinese family, prominent in public affairs. Soong Yao-ju or Charles Jones Soong, 1866–1918, graduated from Vanderbilt Univ. and, after returning to China (1886), was a Methodist missionary in Shanghai.
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, family), were the international symbols of China at war, but Chiang was bitterly criticized by Allied officers, notably Joseph W. StilwellStilwell, Joseph Warren,
1883–1946, American general, b. Palatka, Fla. Commissioned in the army in 1904, he fought in World War I and later served for 13 years in China. In Feb., 1942, during World War II, he went back to China, where he became (Mar.
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, and argument raged over his internal policies and his conduct of the war.

After the war ended Chiang failed to achieve a settlement with the Communists, and civil war continued. In 1948 Chiang became the first president elected under a new, liberalized constitution. He soon resigned, however, and his moderate vice president, Gen. Li Tsung-jênLi Tsung-jên
, 1890–1969, Chinese Nationalist general and political leader. For 25 years (1925–49) he was a leader of the military clique that ruled Guangxi prov.
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, attempted to negotiate a truce with the Communists. The talks failed, and in 1949 Chiang resumed leadership of the Kuomintang to oppose the Communists, who were sweeping into S China in strong military force and reducing the territories held by the Nationalists.

By 1950 Chiang and the Nationalist government had been driven from the mainland to the island of TaiwanTaiwan
, Portuguese Formosa, officially Republic of China, island nation (2015 est. pop. 23,486,000), 13,885 sq mi (35,961 sq km), in the Pacific Ocean, separated from the mainland of S China by the 100-mi-wide (161-km) Taiwan Strait.
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 (Formosa) and U.S. aid had been cut off. On Taiwan, Chiang took firm command and established a virtual dictatorship. He reorganized his military forces (U.S. aid resumed with the start of the Korean war) and then instituted limited democratic political reforms. Chiang continued to promise reconquest of the Chinese mainland and at times landed Nationalist guerrillas on the China coast, often to the embarrassment of the United States. His international position was weakened considerably in 1971 when the United Nations expelled his regime and accepted the Communists as the sole legitimate government of China. He remained president until his death in 1975.

Bibliography

Chiang Kai-shek's writings have appeared in English as China's Destiny (1947) and Soviet Russia in China (1957). See also P. P. Y. Loh, The Early Chiang Kai-Shek (1971); biographies by W. Morwood (1980), S. Dolan (1988), and J. Taylor (2009).

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Chiang Kai-Shek

 

(also Chiang Chieh-shih). Born Oct. 31, 1887, in Fenghua, Chekiang Province; died Apr. 5, 1975, in Taipei. Head of the Kuomintang regime; overthrown by the people’s revolution in China in 1949.

The son of a merchant, Chiang Kai-shek graduated from military academies in Paoting and Tokyo. Pretending to be a leftwing member of the Kuomintang, he supported Sun Yat-sen in the first half of the 1920’s. As commander in chief of the National Revolutionary Army he took part in the Northern Campaign of 1926–27. On Apr. 12, 1927, Chiang carried out a counterrevolutionary coup and established a reactionary dictatorship in China. For more than 20 years he wielded enormous power, holding the posts of chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Kuomintang (from 1926), chairman of the Executive Yuan, president of the republic, and commander in chief of the armed forces; he assumed the title of generalissimo.

Between 1930 and 1934, Chiang undertook five punitive campaigns against the soviet regions (seeSOVIETS IN CHINA). After the Japanese attacked China on July 7,1937, he was forced to form a united anti-Japanese national front, which rested on the agreement of the Communist Party of China (CPC) and the Kuomintang to carry out combined operations. Chiang continued to use large forces, however, to blockade the region along the Shansi-Kansu-Ninghsia border, which was controlled by the CPC.

After Japan surrendered on Sept. 2, 1945, Chiang rejected the offer of the CPC to form a coalition government and in June 1946 began a new civil war. In late 1949 the People’s Liberation Army of China liberated virtually all mainland China from the Kuomintang. Chiang fled with his remaining troops to Taiwan, where he established himself with the military and financial support of the USA.

V. I. ELIZAROV

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Chiang Kai-shek

, Jiang Jie Shi
original name Chiang Chung-cheng, 1887--1975, Chinese general: president of China (1928--31; 1943--49) and of the Republic of China (Taiwan) (1950--75). As chairman of the Kuomintang, he allied with the Communists against the Japanese (1937--45), but in the Civil War that followed was forced to withdraw to Taiwan after his defeat by the Communists (1949)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
(227) Sun, supra note 226, at 168; GUODONG XU, MINFA JIBEN YUANZE JIESHI: CHENGXIN YUANZE DE LISHI, SHIWU, FALI YANJIU [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [AN INTERPRETATION OF THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CIVIL LAW: THE HISTORY, PRACTICE AND IDEOLOGY OF THE PRINCIPLE OF HONESTY AND CREDIBILITY] 36 (2012) (suggesting that the principle of "honesty and credibility" accords with the Latin conception of "bona fides" and the conception of "good faith" in English law, each emphasising a subjective element--state of mind--as well as an objective element).
(373.) Zuigao Renmin Fayuan Guanyu Shenli Ju Bu Zhifu Laodong Baochou Xingshi Anjian Shiyong Falu Ruogan Wenti de Jieshi ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Interpretation of the Supreme People's Court on Several Issues concerning the Application of Law when Adjudicating Criminal Cases of Refusal to Pay Labor Remunerations] (Jan.
Nationalist-allied forces in Guangxi defeated Tang's armies, but Jiang Jieshi, Liao Zhongkai, Tan Yankai [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII](1880-1930), Wang Jingwei, and Xu Chongzhi [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (1887-1965), were meeting in Shantou in May 1925 to plot a coup against Hu Hanmin.
Sieff details the evolution of China's policies from the rule of Jiang Jieshi to the rise of Mao, the transition to Deng Xiaoping and the current government of Hu Jintao and the Fourth Generation.
The two texts on which she focuses her exposition, the Daoist Scripture for Unbinding Curses (Jieshi zhouzu jing) and the Buddhist Sutra for the Conjuration of Bewitchments (Zhoumei jing), were the products of a "subtle textual exchange" between the two traditions, whose approaches to neutralizing spells and curses were otherwise distinctly dissimilar.
(45.) Zuigao renmin fayuan guanyu shenli zousi xingshi anjian juti yingyong falu ruogan wenti de jieshi (II) [Interpretation of the Supreme People's Court on the Concrete Application of Law in the Trial of Criminal Cases of Smuggling (II)] (promulgated by the Sup.
(5) In the Chinese legal system, Falu (Law) is made by the National People's Congress and its Standing Committee; Xingzheng fagui (Administrative Regulations) are made by the State Council; Bumen guizheng (Departmental Rules) are made by various departments of the State Council; Sifa jieshi (Judicial Interpretations) are made by the Supreme People's Court.
Lee's conversation with Jiang Jieshi during an unpublicised visit to Taipei (in mid-May 1973) provides us with a further glimpse of the PRC in Lee's worldview.
(210) See Zuigao Renmin Fayuan Guanyu Shenli Jishu Hetong Jiufen Anjian Shiyong Falv Ruogan Wenti De Jieshi [Interpretation of the Supreme People's Court on Some Issues Concerning the Application of Law in the Trial of Cases of Disputes over Technology Contracts] (promulgated Dec.
See Zuigao renmin fayuan guanyu zhixing Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo xingzheng susong fa ruogan wenti de jieshi [Supreme People's Court Interpretation on Several Questions in the Implementation of the Administrative Litigation Law of the People's Republic of China] (adopted Nov.
Liu Jun-hai, Xin gongsi fa zhong jiekai gongsi miansha zhidu de jieshi nandian tanxi [An Analysis of the Controversial Issues of Piercing the Corporate Veil in the Context of the New Corporate Law], 17 TONGJI U.