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see IslamIslam
, [Arab.,=submission to God], world religion founded by the Prophet Muhammad. Founded in the 7th cent., Islam is the youngest of the three monotheistic world religions (with Judaism and Christianity). An adherent to Islam is a Muslim [Arab.,=one who submits].
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(religion, spiritualism, and occult)

Jihad means "holy war." But how that word is interpreted is a matter of some debate, probably because Muhammad himself used the term in different ways. Sometimes he used jihad to describe the cultural and political spread of Islam. Sometimes he used it to refer to the spiritual war against evil both in society and in the human soul.

Following are a few passages from the Qur'an relating to jihad:

Not equal are those believers who sit (at home) and receive no hurt, and those who strive and fight in the cause of God with their goods and their persons. God hath granted a grade higher to those who strive and fight. (4:95)

Fight in the cause of God those who fight you, but do not transgress limits; for God loveth not transgressors. (2:190)

And fight them on until there is no more tumult or oppression, and there prevail justice and faith in God; but if they cease, let there be no hostility to those who practice oppression. (2:193)

And if any strive (with might and main), they do so for their own souls; for Allah is free of all needs from all creation. (29:6)

Let there be no compulsion in religion: Truth stands out clear from Error: whoever rejects evil and believes in Allah hath grasped the most trustworthy hand-hold, that never breaks. And Allah heareth and knoweth all things. (2:256)



(Arabic, “holy war,” literally, “struggle” or “persevere”), one of the precepts of Islam, supported by the Koran (for example, sura 9, verse 29), according to which all Muslims able to do battle must carry out holy wars against unbelievers. The teachings developed by scholars of Muslim law state that the entire world is divided into a “land of Islam” (or “region of faith”) and a “war territory” (countries inhabited by non-Muslims, or unbelievers). The idea of jihad was widely used by the ruling strata of Muslim feudal society to inflame fanaticism and to unify Muslims under the banner of religion. The call to jihad was often used against “external enemies” as well.

At times, under conditions of combat against colonialists, calls to jihad served the interest of defensive war and the simultaneous defense of religion, as, for example, in the Sudan during the Mahdist uprising at the end of the 19th century.

Jihad is also called ghazawat (Arabic, literally a “raid,” “campaign,” or “attack”).

In recent times in Muslim countries the jihad has been a call to war in defense of the fatherland.


Petrushevskii, I. P. Islam vlrane v VII-XV vekakh. Leningrad, 1966. Pages 80-83.
Encyclopédic de ïlslam, vol. 2. Leiden-Paris, 1965. Pages 551-53.


, jehad
1. Islam a holy war against infidels undertaken by Muslims in defence of the Islamic faith
2. Islam the personal struggle of the individual believer against evil and persecution
References in periodicals archive ?
The fear of confronting Islamic Fascism head on, least it be construed as 'Islamophobia',' has led to an ineffectual response to Jihadism at all levels of society.
Mr Rafiq, himself a Muslim, said: "The theology used to recruit these guys has its roots very much in Salafi jihadism.
A new strain of Salafi Jihadism has emerged in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region as evidenced by increased levels of terrorism," Aon says.
This has become a fight of jihadism, leaving no room whatsoever for anyone who falls outside its framework.
In August, Saudi Arabia announced that it was to donate $100 million to the United Nations Center on Counterterrorism, whilst Denmark has contributed $22 million to help authorities in Burkina Faso combat jihadism in the Sahel region of Africa, from which militants (http://www.
Second, the fact that they are originally from Chechnya where I assume the majority of the people direct their ire against Russia for the devastation in their country and yet they decided to lash out against the United States suggest that they both subscribe to the overarching ideology of Islamic Jihadism (holy struggle) targeting the West as a whole hence a sort of 'Islam International' if you will upon which the al-Qaeda of Bin Laden was established.
Israel accepts, he writes, the importance of the American concern to prevent both the rise of jihadism in Syria and any use of Assad's chemical weapons.
They would involve making an unambiguous public break with global jihadism and promising to use the office in the capital city of Doha as a base for negotiations with the US and the Afghan government, rather than as the seat of a government in exile or for fundraising.
Veteran Tory backbencher Sir Peter Tapsell said: "The more frequently Western forces intervene in Muslim countries, the greater will be the spread of jihadism throughout the Islamic world and the higher the threat of terrorism in this country.
There are also those who fear that American isolationism could lead to dire consequences, especially if it were to contribute to the rise of a new form of Jihadism.
outsourced some questioning to Russian and Chinese interrogators and officially advised all interrogators to assume that any explanation given for going to Afghanistan after 9/11 was a lie to cover jihadism.
The reality is that jihadism in the United States remains extremely rare in a Muslim-American community of some three million.