Jim Crow laws

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Jim Crow laws,

in U.S. history, statutes enacted by Southern states and municipalities, beginning in the 1880s, that legalized segregation between blacks and whites. The name is believed to be derived from a character in a popular minstrel song. The Supreme Court ruling in 1896 in Plessy v. Ferguson that separate facilities for whites and blacks were constitutional encouraged the passage of discriminatory laws that wiped out the gains made by blacks during Reconstruction. Railways and streetcars, public waiting rooms, restaurants, boardinghouses, theaters, and public parks were segregated; separate schools, hospitals, and other public institutions, generally of inferior quality, were designated for blacks. By World War I, even places of employment were segregated, and it was not until after World War II that an assault on Jim Crow in the South began to make headway. In 1950 the Supreme Court ruled that the Univ. of Texas must admit a black, Herman Sweatt, to the law school, on the grounds that the state did not provide equal education for him. This was followed (1954) by the Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kans., declaring separate facilities by race to be unconstitutional. Blacks in the South used legal suits, mass sit-ins, and boycotts to hasten desegregation. A march on Washington by over 200,000 in 1963 dramatized the movement to end Jim Crow. Southern whites often responded with violence, and federal troops were needed to preserve order and protect blacks, notably at Little Rock, Ark. (1957), Oxford, Miss. (1962), and Selma, Ala. (1965). The Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965, and the Fair Housing Act of 1968 finally ended the legal sanctions to Jim Crow. See affirmative actionaffirmative action,
in the United States, programs to overcome the effects of past societal discrimination by allocating jobs and resources to members of specific groups, such as minorities and women.
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; civil rightscivil rights,
rights that a nation's inhabitants enjoy by law. The term is broader than "political rights," which refer only to rights devolving from the franchise and are held usually only by a citizen, and unlike "natural rights," civil rights have a legal as well as a
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; integrationintegration,
in U.S. history, the goal of an organized movement to break down the barriers of discrimination and segregation separating African Americans from the rest of American society.
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See C. V. Woodward, The Strange Career of Jim Crow (1966); L. F. Litwack, How Free Is Free? The Long Death of Jim Crow (2009).

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‘Jim Crow’ Laws

the common slang name in the US for laws in the Southern states which enforced SEGREGATION of white and black persons in transport, education, marriage, leisure facilities and so on. These laws were common in the Southern US from 1883 to 1954 despite the emancipation of black slaves in 1865. All over the South, ‘whites only’ and ‘blacks only’ signs were a visible reminder of the inferior status of black Americans. The Supreme Court ruled in 1896 (Plessey v. Ferguson) that ‘separate but equal’ facilities for blacks and whites were legal. Until 1954, when the Supreme Court reversed its view (Brown v. Board of Education), separate, but very inferior and unequal, provision for blacks was the order of the day in the South. Originally, ‘Jim Crow’ was a common and pejorative slave name.
Collins Dictionary of Sociology, 3rd ed. © HarperCollins Publishers 2000

Jim Crow laws

among other rulings, prevented interstate travel by Negroes. [Am. Hist.: Van Doren, 485]
Allusions—Cultural, Literary, Biblical, and Historical: A Thematic Dictionary. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
"While the Conservative Party has tabled a debate on Wednesday to apparently discuss and condemn abuse of candidates in the General Election, these comments prove their hypocrisy," he said Outgoing Liberal Democrat leader Tim Farron said: "This disgusting comment belongs in the era of the Jim Crow laws and has no place in our Parliament.
And Lib Dem leader Tim Farron said: "This disgusting comment belongs in the era of the Jim Crow laws and has no place in our Parliament."
Surrounding their world, however, is the turbulent South as Jim Crow laws come to an end.
They spoke to university students about how Indian statesman Ram Manohar Lohia marched against Jim Crow laws in Mississippi, and noted that African-American activists, including James Lawson and Bayard Rustin, studied nonviolent strategies in India.
View a Dynamic Timeline of Jim Crow Laws: "The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow" (www.pbs.org/wnet/jimcrow/) is an interactive timeline that explains the system of government-sanctioned racial oppression and segregation (known as Jim Crow Laws) as well as other historical events, such as the ratification of the 14th Amendment.
THE HYPNOTIST by Laurence Anholt, (Corgi, PS7.99 - ebook PS4.99) HHHH H THE Hypnotist unfolds steadily and beautifully, ramping up the fear, tension and hope faced by young black men in 1960s America, when racial segregation, mandated by the Jim Crow laws, was brutally enforced.
But, after the war, they're forced back into hiding as the KKK and Jim Crow laws grip the South.
The original police departments in the South grew from "slave patrols," formed to enforce the lucrative system of chattel slavery, and later to uphold the cruel segregation of Jim Crow laws. In the North, police departments' primary roles were to protect the businesses and property of white merchants and to punish laborers, primarily the poor, foreign immigrants and free blacks, who attempted to organize.
In the end, Professor Anderson demonstrates that Missouri Germans were more willing to undermine the racial hierarchy by questioning slavery than were most white Missourians, although after emancipation, many of them showed little interest in continuing to demolish the hierarchy that benefitted them by fighting for black rights and resisting the Jim Crow laws that would replace the institution of slavery in Missouri.
Remember that racial discrimination was rife and the notorious Jim Crow Laws were in full force.
Segregated cemeteries - which were historically common in Texas largely because of Jim Crow laws - have been illegal since 1948 when the U.S.
This crazy New York City gun permitting process generally has all the features of modern-day Jim Crow laws.