Jim Crow laws


Also found in: Dictionary, Legal, Wikipedia.

Jim Crow laws,

in U.S. history, statutes enacted by Southern states and municipalities, beginning in the 1880s, that legalized segregation between blacks and whites. The name is believed to be derived from a character in a popular minstrel song. The Supreme Court ruling in 1896 in Plessy v. Ferguson that separate facilities for whites and blacks were constitutional encouraged the passage of discriminatory laws that wiped out the gains made by blacks during Reconstruction. Railways and streetcars, public waiting rooms, restaurants, boardinghouses, theaters, and public parks were segregated; separate schools, hospitals, and other public institutions, generally of inferior quality, were designated for blacks. By World War I, even places of employment were segregated, and it was not until after World War II that an assault on Jim Crow in the South began to make headway. In 1950 the Supreme Court ruled that the Univ. of Texas must admit a black, Herman Sweatt, to the law school, on the grounds that the state did not provide equal education for him. This was followed (1954) by the Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kans., declaring separate facilities by race to be unconstitutional. Blacks in the South used legal suits, mass sit-ins, and boycotts to hasten desegregation. A march on Washington by over 200,000 in 1963 dramatized the movement to end Jim Crow. Southern whites often responded with violence, and federal troops were needed to preserve order and protect blacks, notably at Little Rock, Ark. (1957), Oxford, Miss. (1962), and Selma, Ala. (1965). The Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965, and the Fair Housing Act of 1968 finally ended the legal sanctions to Jim Crow. See affirmative actionaffirmative action,
in the United States, programs to overcome the effects of past societal discrimination by allocating jobs and resources to members of specific groups, such as minorities and women.
..... Click the link for more information.
; civil rightscivil rights,
rights that a nation's inhabitants enjoy by law. The term is broader than "political rights," which refer only to rights devolving from the franchise and are held usually only by a citizen, and unlike "natural rights," civil rights have a legal as well as a
..... Click the link for more information.
; integrationintegration,
in U.S. history, the goal of an organized movement to break down the barriers of discrimination and segregation separating African Americans from the rest of American society.
..... Click the link for more information.
.

Bibliography

See C. V. Woodward, The Strange Career of Jim Crow (1966); L. F. Litwack, How Free Is Free? The Long Death of Jim Crow (2009).

‘Jim Crow’ Laws

the common slang name in the US for laws in the Southern states which enforced SEGREGATION of white and black persons in transport, education, marriage, leisure facilities and so on. These laws were common in the Southern US from 1883 to 1954 despite the emancipation of black slaves in 1865. All over the South, ‘whites only’ and ‘blacks only’ signs were a visible reminder of the inferior status of black Americans. The Supreme Court ruled in 1896 (Plessey v. Ferguson) that ‘separate but equal’ facilities for blacks and whites were legal. Until 1954, when the Supreme Court reversed its view (Brown v. Board of Education), separate, but very inferior and unequal, provision for blacks was the order of the day in the South. Originally, ‘Jim Crow’ was a common and pejorative slave name.

Jim Crow laws

among other rulings, prevented interstate travel by Negroes. [Am. Hist.: Van Doren, 485]
References in periodicals archive ?
But, after the war, they're forced back into hiding as the KKK and Jim Crow laws grip the South.
The original police departments in the South grew from "slave patrols," formed to enforce the lucrative system of chattel slavery, and later to uphold the cruel segregation of Jim Crow laws. In the North, police departments' primary roles were to protect the businesses and property of white merchants and to punish laborers, primarily the poor, foreign immigrants and free blacks, who attempted to organize.
In the end, Professor Anderson demonstrates that Missouri Germans were more willing to undermine the racial hierarchy by questioning slavery than were most white Missourians, although after emancipation, many of them showed little interest in continuing to demolish the hierarchy that benefitted them by fighting for black rights and resisting the Jim Crow laws that would replace the institution of slavery in Missouri.
Remember that racial discrimination was rife and the notorious Jim Crow Laws were in full force.
Segregated cemeteries - which were historically common in Texas largely because of Jim Crow laws - have been illegal since 1948 when the U.S.
This crazy New York City gun permitting process generally has all the features of modern-day Jim Crow laws.
Nineteen-year-old college sophomore Celeste Tyree travels to a small Mississippi town to organize a voter registration project, and prepare townspeople to pass the state's convoluted voting test to defy the Jim Crow laws meant to exclude black citizens from the polls.
In contrast, racialized labour has been organized through racial logics, justifying chattel slavery up until the mid-19th century, then Jim Crow laws across the American south, and the influx of Mexican labourers through the Bracero program, through which Mexicans were permitted to work seasonally but were unable to become permanent residents of the United States.
A Shropshire B Lancashire C Cheshire D Derbyshire QUESTION 11 - for 11 points: What was the purpose of the late 19th century Jim Crow Laws in the United States?
And under Jim Crow laws, there were many private and some public places that were "white only," to which blacks were not allowed access.
Jim Crow laws in the South discouraged the women from even leaving the bus except to perform.
This gives rise to a range of questions about the impact of Jim Crow laws, racial violence, European immigration, internal migration, and the differences and similarities between racial segregation in rural and urban areas in the United States.