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, or Djokjakarta
, city (1990 pop. 412,059), S Java, Indonesia, at the foot of volcanic Mt. Merapi, capital of the special region of Yogyakarta (1990 pop. 2,912,611), a former sultanate.
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(Djokjakarta), an Indonesian sultanate, with a capital of the same name. It was formed in 1755, when the Dutch colonizers succeeded in bringing about the division of Mataram into two states subservient to them, Jogjakarta and Surakarta. Mangkubumi, the brother of the susuhunan, became the first sultan of Jogjakarta, adopting the title of Hamengkubuwono, which was used by all subsequent sultans. In 1825 a people’s war led by Dipo Negoro (the Java War of 1825-30) flared up against Dutch domination in Jogjakarta. Until World War II the sultanate remained under the strict control of the Dutch and was considered an “autonomous state” in the colonial administrative system (the so-called Netherlands East Indies). After the formation of the independent Republic of Indonesia in 1945, Jogjakarta received the status of special autonomous region, with Hamengkubuwono IX (who became sultan in 1939) as administrator for life.
(Djokjakarta), a city in Indonesia, in south central Java. Administrative center of the Special Territory of Jogjakarta. Population, 371,000 (1968). Railroad and highway junction. Airport at Maguwo.
Jogjakarta is the center of traditional handicraft industry: weaving, the manufacture of batik (cloth painted by a special method), silver articles, and theater masks and puppets for the shadow theater, and wood-carving. It has food and condiment industry (rice-polishing, sugar, and tobacco) and textile industry. Jogjakarta is the country’s oldest cultural center. Gadja Mada University is located there.
The palace of the sultan of Jogjakarta (1755-60), a monument to General Sudirman (1951, by G. Hendra), the Museum of Javanese Culture, and the Art Gallery of the Administration of Culture are located in Jogjakarta.
Ancient architectural monuments (Prambanan and Borobudur) that attract a large number of tourists are located in the surrounding area.
The first mention of Jogjakarta dates from the early 18th century. In 1755, after the partition of the Mataram state, Jogjakarta became the capital of the sultanate of the same name, which was controlled by the Dutch. In 1946-49, during the war of national liberation, it was the provisional capital of the Republic of Indonesia, from which the struggle against Dutch aggression was directed.