Johanan ben Zakkai

Johanan ben Zakkai

(jōhăn`ən bĕn zăk`āī), leader of the Pharisees of Jerusalem before the destruction of the Temple in A.D. 70, afterward founder of the Jewish academy at JamniaJamnia
, biblical Jabneel and Jabneh [Heb.,=God causes to build], ancient city, central Israel. Its modern name is Yavne. A central city of Philistia, the Bible refers to its walls being destroyed by Uzziah. It was pillaged by Judas Maccabaeus and later rebuilt.
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. He emphasized the study of the Torah as the primary religious duty for which humankind was created. After A.D. 70 he taught that deeds of loving kindness might replace sacrifice in achieving atonement.
References in periodicals archive ?
This was the case until the last student of Hillel the Elder: Beginning from Rabban Johanan ben Zakkai (Epstein 1938d, 284), all the renowned sages were called by their first names, such as Simeon the Righteous (Epstein 1935a, 2), Shemaiah and Abtalion (Epstein 1935a, 7), without noting any rabbinical title whatsoever ("Rabbi is greater than Rav, Rabban is greater than Rabbi, and his name alone is greater than Rabban") (Halevi 1970, 9).
Indeed, Josephus' counsel was like that of Johanan ben Zakkai, who urged his followers not to revolt against Rome because the Romans allowed them to carry on their way of life when they lived in peace.
For Roth and for Nathan Zuckerman, the narrator, one chooses Yavneh, the center granted by the Romans to Johanan ben Zakkai, who began the arduous practice of preserving Judaism outside Jerusalem, and not the justifiable, military resistance of either Bar Kochba or the Maccabees.