John Constable


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Wikipedia.

Constable, John,

1776–1837, English painter, b. Suffolk. Constable and Turner were the leading figures in English landscape painting of the 19th cent. Constable became famous for his landscapes of Suffolk, Hampstead, Salisbury, and Brighton. The son of a prosperous miller, he showed artistic talent while very young but did not devote himself to art until he was 23, when he went to London to study at the Royal Academy. Influenced by the 17th-century landscape painters Ruisdael and Claude Lorrain, his poetic approach to nature paralleled in spirit that of his contemporary, the poet Wordsworth. Constable's direct observations of nature and his free use of broken color were extraordinary in his day. He received but modest recognition in England, being tardily admitted to the Royal Academy in 1829. His work was more popular in France. In 1824, his View on the Stour (1819) and The Hay Wain (1821; National Gall., London) were exhibited at the Salon in Paris, winning gold medals. His work made a profound impression on the French romantics including the young Delacroix and Bonington. Later his painting influenced the Barbizon school and, more indirectly, the general course of French 19th-century landscape art. In the United States he is represented in the Metropolitan Museum and the Frick Collection, New York City, in the Mellon Center for British Art, New Haven, Conn., and in the galleries of Philadelphia, Toledo, and Chicago. Splendid examples of his work are contained in the National Gallery, London and the Victoria and Albert Museum.

Bibliography

See catalog of the latter collection by G. Reynolds (1960); C. R. Leslie, Memoirs of the Life of John Constable (enl. ed. 1937); collections of his letters by P. Holmes (1931) and R. B. Beckett (1962); biography by B. Taylor (1973); studies by C. Peacock (rev. ed. 1972) and R. Gadney (1976).

Constable, John

 

Born June 11, 1776, in East Bergholt, Suffolk; died Mar. 31, 1837, in London. English painter.

Constable, the son of a village miller, attended the Royal Academy in London from 1800 to 1805 (he became a member of the academy in 1829). He was largely a self-taught artist, having studied nature, the works of J. van Ruisdael, N. Poussin, and C. Lorraine, and the 18th-century English landscape paintings by T. Gainsborough, J. R. Cozens, and T. Girtin.

Rejecting any idealization of nature, Constable depicted the freshness of many facets of everyday village settings by reproducing the flickering atmospheric effects. His works, such as The Hay Wain (1821, National Gallery, London), Salisbury Cathedral From the River (National Gallery, London), Dedham Vale (1828, National Gallery, Edinburgh), and Stoke-by-Nayland (1836; Art Institute of Chicago), reveal a sense of the harmonious unity of nature, which is inspirational and majestic even in its most modest aspect.

Constable composed his landscapes on the basis of a vast number of plein air studies. Some of his landscapes were the first in the history of landscape painting to be done entirely from nature. Constable combines a naturalness of composition and a purity and freshness of colors with a wealth of hues and a mobility of fine brushstroke. He frequently painted the same motif under different weather conditions, subtly conveying the uniqueness of these conditions. He was particularly fond of painting cloud studies and executed numerous series of such studies. Constable greatly furthered the growth of realist tendencies in 19th-century painting (for example, the work of Delacroix, the masters of the Barbizon school, and the impressionists).

REFERENCES

Leslie, C. R. ZhiznDzhona Konsteblia, eskvaira. Moscow, 1964. (Translated from English.)
Chegodaev, A. D. Dzhon Konstebl’. Moscow, 1968.
Badt, K. John Constable’s Clouds. London, 1950.
Shirley, A. John Constable. London, 1948.
Reynolds, G. Constable, the Natural Painter. London, 1965.
References in periodicals archive ?
Dr John Constable, director of policy and research at the Renewable Energy Foundation (REF), had been invited by action group Save Our Unspoilt Landscape (SOUL) to the Border Green Festival at Mill Farm, Tweedmouth, to explain why north Northumberland is an inappropriate location for wind energy production.
<B A portrait of Maria, the wife of painter John Constable
The Georgian townhouse in which he lived from 1827 until A self-portrait John Constable his death in 1837 has now come onto the market for the first time in 30 years.
WHEN you think of the artist John Constable, rural scenes spring to mind of green rolling fields dotted with grazing livestock and contented farm workers.
When you think of artist John Constable, rural scenes spring to mind of g reen rolling fields dotted with grazing livestock and contented farm workers.
JOHN CONSTABLE has been a revelation for Evan Williams with the sunshine on his back and romped to success at Haydock in the Swinton Hurdle and at Market Rasen in the Summer Hurdle eight days ago.
Balloon Girl, which the street artist sprayed on an East London shop wall in 2002, tipped John Constable's The Hay Wain into second place and saw off a Turner and a Stubbs.
Second place went to John Constable's 1821 landscape The Hay Wain while third spot was taken by Vettriano's 1992 painting The Singing Butler.
Paintings include works by Cezanne, Van Gogh, George Stubbs, Edwin Landseer, John Constable, Henri Gaudier-Brzeska, John Frederick Lewis, and C.
A COUPLE have raked in PS13,000 after a painting that had hung in their living room for years turned out to be a lost work by Hay Wain artist John Constable.
Works on display, including John Constable and Paul Nash, focus on representations of this stretch of coastline from the last 200 years.
The deal between Tourism Australia and STA Travel was signed in London by Tourism Australia s new Regional General Manager for the UK, Denise Von Wald and STA Travel CEO John Constable.