Enders, John Franklin

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Enders, John Franklin,

1897–1985, American bacteriologist, b. West Hartford, Conn., grad. Yale, 1920, Ph.D. Harvard, 1930. He began teaching at Harvard in 1929, became associate professor in 1942, and joined the research staff of Children's Hospital, Boston. The 1954 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded jointly to Enders, T. H. WellerWeller, Thomas Huckle,
1915–2008, American microbiologist and physician, b. Ann Arbor, Mich., B.A. Univ. of Michigan, 1936, M.D. Harvard, 1940. In 1936 he began teaching at Harvard, and as a specialist in tropical medicine he became professor in the school of public health
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, and F. C. RobbinsRobbins, Frederick Chapman,
1916–2003, American physician, b. Auburn, Ala., grad. Univ. of Missouri, 1938, M.D. Harvard, 1940. He served on the staff of Children's Hospital, Boston, and at Harvard, and from 1952 to 1966 was director of pediatrics at Cleveland Metropolitan
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 for their success in growing polio viruses in cultures of various tissues.

Enders, John Franklin


Born Feb. 10, 1897, in West Hartford, Conn. American virologist. Member of the National Academy of Sciences (1953), the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the Royal Society of London.

Enders graduated from Yale University in 1920. From 1929 to 1956 he taught at Harvard University. In 1946 he became chief of the laboratory of infectious diseases at Children’s Medical Center in Boston and head of the research department of infectious diseases at Children’s Hospital, also in Boston. He became a professor at Children’s Hospital (Harvard Medical School) in 1956.

Enders’ main works deal with bacteriology, immunology, and virology. He discovered a new type of polysaccharide in pneumococcus and showed the catalytic role of complement in the opsonization of bacteria by specific antibodies. In collaboration with T. Weller and F. Robbins, Enders proved that the poliomyelitis virus is not neurotropic and developed a method of culturing the virus, thus revolutionizing virological research. He also helped develop a measles vaccine.

Enders shared a Nobel Prize in 1954 with Robbins and Weller.

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For general readers, Woodward, a businessperson and writer interested in science, describes the work of 10 scientists from around the world who have saved the most lives in the twentieth century, some of whom are still living: ophthalmologist Al Sommer, who discovered the importance of Vitamin A supplements; Akira Endo, who discovered statin drugs to lower cholesterol; Bill Foege, who helped eradicate smallpox; David Nalin, who developed oral rehydration therapy; Norman Borlaug, who developed new strains of wheat; and John Enders, Paul Muller, Howard Florey, Frederick Banting, and Karl Landsteiner, who discovered the polio and measles vaccines, DDT, penicillin, insulin, and blood groups, respectively.
When the owners reported the stone's loss to its insurer, Lloyd's of London, the company immediately hired renowned adjuster John Enders of McLarens Young International to investigate.
This tale of how polio was conquered in the US in the mid-20th century is mainly concerned with the personalities involved: Franklin Delano Roosevelt, himself a polio victim, who used his private wealth to set up the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis; Basil O'Connor, the hard-driving Chair of the Foundation, handpicked by Roosevelt, whose passion for finding a vaccine led him to support promising researchers throughout the country, and to take enormous risks in testing the vaccine; and, of course, Salk, Sabin, and an army of researchers, including John Enders, whose discovery that the polio virus could be grown outside of nerve tissue earned him a Nobel Prize.
One of his heroes is John Enders, the Harvard microbiologist who in 1948 discovered how to grow the deadly polio virus in the laboratory.
The stone's insurer, London-based Lloyd's, immediately hired adjuster John Enders of New York-based McLarens Young International.
Under the direction of Managing Editor John Enders, the magazine will aim to attract readers from all major West Coast cities.