John Ericsson

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John Ericsson
Birthday
BirthplaceLångbanshyttan, Värmland
Died
Occupation
Engineer, innovator

Ericsson, John

(ĕr`ĭksən), 1803–89, Swedish-American inventor and marine engineer, b. Värmlands co., Sweden. He moved to London in 1826, and entered the railroad locomotive Novelty in a contest in 1829, only to be defeated by George StephensonStephenson, George,
1781–1848, British engineer, noted as a locomotive builder. He learned to read and write in night school at the age of 18, while working in a colliery.
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's Rocket. Ericsson's outstanding role in the development of the screw propeller (he patented one in 1836) for ships was responsible for his coming to America in 1839 to build for the U.S. navy. The U.S.S. Princeton, completed by him in 1844, was the first warship with a screw propeller. Unfortunately, one of the ship's guns, which he did not build, exploded and killed several dignitaries, and he was blamed unjustly for the disaster.

Ericsson is chiefly remembered as the designer and builder of the Monitor, a radical departure from previous types; and its fortuitous conflict with the Virginia during the Civil War, less than five months after its keel was laid, caught the imagination of the people and made Ericsson a hero (see Monitor and MerrimackMonitor and Merrimack,
two American warships that fought the first engagement between ironclad ships. When, at the beginning of the Civil War, the Union forces abandoned the Norfolk Navy Yard at Portsmouth, Va., they scuttled the powerful steam frigate Merrimack.
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. With his associates he was busy the remainder of the war designing and building other ironclad vessels, and after the war he built monitors for other governments until the type was abandoned. He also constructed gunboats for Spain, and worked on a "destroyer" with successful devices for releasing torpedoes underwater, but he could not interest the U.S. government in it.

Ericsson made many other contributions to engineering, notably in ordnance, in marine engines, and in caloric or heat engines. In his late years he did experimental work in solar physics.

Bibliography

See biography by R. White (1960).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/

Ericsson, John

(1803–89) engineer, inventor; born in Varmland County, Sweden. He served as a topographer and a captain in the Swedish army. He moved to London and worked as an independent engineer (1826–39), developing the idea of placing a ships' engine below the waterline; his Novelty was the world's first propeller-driven commercial ship. He came to New York in 1839 with a commission to build a ship for the U.S. Navy. His propulsion system was used by commercial steamers and by the USS Princeton (1844), the world's first screw-propelled war vessel. He became a U.S. citizen in 1848. The advent of the Civil War brought a demand for his talents; he designed and built the USS Monitor in a 100-day period (1861–62). Following the battle between the Monitor and the CSS Virginia (formerly the Merrimac) he continued to design and build ironclads. He launched a ship capable of firing underwater torpedoes (1878) and continued his experiments to find better methods of utilizing heat energy, even looking into solar energy. He died in New York and his remains were returned to Sweden (1890) at the request of the Swedish government.
The Cambridge Dictionary of American Biography, by John S. Bowman. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1995. Reproduced with permission.
References in periodicals archive ?
John Ericson, School of Music, Arizona State University, Tempe AZ 85287-0405 USA, john.ericson@asu.edu
John Ericson, a Swedish-born New York engineer and inventor submitted a steamship plan for what he called, "An impregnable steam battery of light draught, suitable to navigate the shallow rivers and harbors of Confederate States." But his plan was rejected, because the board of Naval officers questioned its stability.
Disney''s part-animated musical fantasy, starring Angela Lansbury, David Tomlinson, Roddy McDowall, Sam Jaffe, Bruce Forsyth, John Ericson, Reginald Owen and Tessie O''Shea The Man Who Sued God (2003) Channel 5, 11pm A fisherman is left in dire straits when his boat is destroyed in a storm.
These vessels should not have been allowed to get out of Subic Bay [once the investigation started]." Instead, Payumo said, the SBMA allowed Glenn Defense to service the US Navy vessels USNS John Ericson, USNS Pecos and USNS Charles Drew.
He was a member of Trinity Lutheran Church, Worcester, Masonic Lodge of Worcester, and John Ericson Lodge of the Vasa Order of America, Massachusetts Retail Bakeries of America and its board and Retail Bakers of America.
Summary: Tanmia, the National Human Resource Development and Employment Authority, has announced that it recently held discussions with John Ericson, Chief of the Outreach Unit of the United Nations (UN) Office of Human Resources Management (OHRM), who was in the UAE to meet with various government departments to discuss measures to increase the number of candidates from the UAE for positions in the UN.
THE Rugby Decorative and Fine Arts Society lecture on Thursday will be on wine-related antiques and will be given by educational consultant and author John Ericson.
Charles Laughton, Van Heflin and John Ericson star.
John Ericson is an authority on the history of the horn in the 19th century and on instruments such as the mellophone and Wagner tuba.
With Robert Ryan, Lee Marvin, Ernest Borgnine, Dean Jagger, Walter Brennan, Anne Francis and John Ericson. (1955)