John Henry Newman


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Newman, John Henry

 

Born Feb. 21, 1801, in London; died Aug. 11, 1890, in Edgbaston, near Birmingham. English theologian, educational theoretician, publicist, and church figure. Son of a banker.

Newman graduated from Oxford University and until 1833 combined university teaching with the duties of a vicar. His first work, The Arians of the Fourth Century (1833), already foreshadowed the direction that Newman would take in his later attempts to consolidate the religious doctrine of the Anglican Church. However, while working toward this goal in 90 periodically issued Tracts for the Times (1833–41), the aim of which was to bring a resounding halt to the “domination of liberalism in religious thought” and to revive “the true concept of the interrelationship between Anglicanism and the Catholic religion as a whole,” Newman moved further and further away from Anglicanism. In 1845 he converted to Catholicism and in 1847 became a priest of the Roman Catholic Church. From 1854 through 1858, Newman was rector of the Catholic University in Dublin. In 1879 he became a cardinal.

In his work Apologia pro vita sua (1864), Newman preached active acceptance of authoritarian religious views based on intuition and aided by force of will and moral feeling. Newman developed the position philosophically in An Essay in Aid of a Grammar of Assent (1870).

Newman’s works spread widely among Catholics and were translated into various languages. In the disputes between the representatives of Thomism and Scotism, Newman took the side of the followers of John Duns Scotus and defended the principle of an “open theology” free of scholastic confines. He thereby became a precursor of the renewal and modernization of Catholicism in the mid-20th century.

WORKS

Works, vols. 1–37. London, 1868–81.
Essays and Sketches, vols. 1–3. New York, 1948.
The Letters and Diaries, vols. 1–18. London-New York, 1961–68.
The Philosophical Notebook of J. H. Newman (in 2 vols.), vol. 1. New York, 1969.

REFERENCES

Ward, W. The Life of Cardinal Newman, vols. 1–2. London, 1912.
Bouyer, L. Newman: Sa Vie, sa spiritualité. Paris, 1952.
Hollis, C. Newman and the Modern World. New York, 1968.

V. S. MURAV’EV

References in periodicals archive ?
The Achievement of John Henry Newman, Collins, 1990, p.
The sermons of John Henry Newman are replete with warnings to heed the direct calls of God with quickness--neither lagging behind God nor trying to get ahead of him.
Still, Bottone's work does a great deal to direct our ever-more-dispersed attention back to one of the great funds of our tradition: the wealth of human wisdom discovered by Alasdair MacIntyre, John Henry Newman, Thomas Aquinas, and Cicero before him, namely the dynamic view of the human person laid out by Aristotle.
There is a number of catechetical themes running through the works of John Henry Newman. Not least is the Church's teaching on the Real Presence.
He says that in keeping with the true theology of the Anglican convert "Cardinal John Henry Newman was quite clear where his ultimate priorities lay: Conscience first, Papal authority second" (ECHO September 16).
Summary: Thousands will attend a special Mass later to beatify Cardinal John Henry Newman as Pope Benedict completes his British tour.
(6.45pm) Ann Widdecombe profiles 19th-century Roman Catholic Cardinal John Henry Newman and meets Deacon Jack Sullivan, who was apparently healed after praying to him.
Cardinal John Henry Newman chose the words as the motto to go on his coat of arms.
Pope Benedict XVI will be making the announcement on December 20, and the late Pope will then be beatified next October, the month after the Venerable John Henry Newman is beatified.
Lovers Rent The Catholic Church has announced that it will exhume and rebury the corpse of England's greatest theologian of the 19th century, Cardinal John Henry Newman, who died in 1890.
He gave the Pope a set of portraits of John Henry Newman - a 19th Century Church of England priest who switched to Catholicism in 1845 and rose to become a cardinal.
And whether it's in Catholic publishing, Catholic parish life, or our everyday faith lives, Cardinal John Henry Newman had it right when he said, "Here below to live is to change, and to be perfect is to have changed often."