John Henry Newman


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Wikipedia.

Newman, John Henry

 

Born Feb. 21, 1801, in London; died Aug. 11, 1890, in Edgbaston, near Birmingham. English theologian, educational theoretician, publicist, and church figure. Son of a banker.

Newman graduated from Oxford University and until 1833 combined university teaching with the duties of a vicar. His first work, The Arians of the Fourth Century (1833), already foreshadowed the direction that Newman would take in his later attempts to consolidate the religious doctrine of the Anglican Church. However, while working toward this goal in 90 periodically issued Tracts for the Times (1833–41), the aim of which was to bring a resounding halt to the “domination of liberalism in religious thought” and to revive “the true concept of the interrelationship between Anglicanism and the Catholic religion as a whole,” Newman moved further and further away from Anglicanism. In 1845 he converted to Catholicism and in 1847 became a priest of the Roman Catholic Church. From 1854 through 1858, Newman was rector of the Catholic University in Dublin. In 1879 he became a cardinal.

In his work Apologia pro vita sua (1864), Newman preached active acceptance of authoritarian religious views based on intuition and aided by force of will and moral feeling. Newman developed the position philosophically in An Essay in Aid of a Grammar of Assent (1870).

Newman’s works spread widely among Catholics and were translated into various languages. In the disputes between the representatives of Thomism and Scotism, Newman took the side of the followers of John Duns Scotus and defended the principle of an “open theology” free of scholastic confines. He thereby became a precursor of the renewal and modernization of Catholicism in the mid-20th century.

WORKS

Works, vols. 1–37. London, 1868–81.
Essays and Sketches, vols. 1–3. New York, 1948.
The Letters and Diaries, vols. 1–18. London-New York, 1961–68.
The Philosophical Notebook of J. H. Newman (in 2 vols.), vol. 1. New York, 1969.

REFERENCES

Ward, W. The Life of Cardinal Newman, vols. 1–2. London, 1912.
Bouyer, L. Newman: Sa Vie, sa spiritualité. Paris, 1952.
Hollis, C. Newman and the Modern World. New York, 1968.

V. S. MURAV’EV

References in periodicals archive ?
Ryan Pinfield and Megan Patterson, |from John Henry Newman Catholic College, on their way to the Metropole Hilton Hotel
The sermons of John Henry Newman are replete with warnings to heed the direct calls of God with quickness--neither lagging behind God nor trying to get ahead of him.
It is named after Blessed John Henry Newman, a Cardinal of the Catholic Church, who had strong links with Birmingham and was beatified in September 2010 by Pope Benedict XVI.
In Chapter Three, Bottone holds, following Walter Jost (Rhetorical Thought in John Henry Newman [1989]), that the philosophy of rhetoric played a key role in forming Newman's understanding of the intellectual dimension of human personhood (151-53).
John Henry Newman, Preface in Discourses on the Scope and Nature of University Education.
JOHN HENRY NEWMAN, when far from home and very ill, wrote a poem, which became the well-known hymn, Lead Kindly Light.
The author has designed this book for those who have little knowledge of, but some interest in, Cardinal--or now, Blessed John Henry Newman.
These three words sum up my reflections on Sunday's events at Cofton Park, when Pope Benedict came to beatify Cardinal John Henry Newman.
He says that in keeping with the true theology of the Anglican convert "Cardinal John Henry Newman was quite clear where his ultimate priorities lay: Conscience first, Papal authority second" (ECHO September 16).
Newman University College in Bartley Green is named after Cardinal John Henry Newman, who will be beatified during the Pope's visit.
Summary: Thousands will attend a special Mass later to beatify Cardinal John Henry Newman as Pope Benedict completes his British tour.