John Robert Lewis

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Lewis, John Robert,

1940–2020, African-American politician and civil-rights leader, b. near Troy, Ala., B.A. American Baptist Theological Seminary, 1961, B.A. Fisk Univ., 1967. The son of sharecroppers, he was an early advocate of nonviolence in the pursuit of civil rights for African Americans. A member of the Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and its president (1963–66), he organized lunch-counter sit-ins, was one of the original Freedom RidersFreedom Riders,
American civil-rights demonstrators who engaged (1961) in nonviolent protests against segregation of public interstate buses and terminals in the South. From the 1940s several federal court decisions and an Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) order had ruled
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, and helped organize the historic March on Washington (1963). Arrested more than 40 times, he was beaten by white mobs and police, most violently during the Selma to Montgomery march on "Bloody Sunday" (1965), when he was severely injured. After leaving SNCC, Lewis concentrated on voter education and headed (1977–80) ACTION, a federal volunteer agency. A liberal Democrat, he won election to the Atlanta city council in 1982; four years later he was first elected to the U.S. House of Representatives from Georgia. He served in Congress until his death, known less for sponsoring legislation than for being the conscience of the Congress, continuing his fight for freedom, equality, and basic human rights.


See his Walking with the Wind (with M. D'Orso, 1999); biography by J. Meacham (2020); D. Halberstam, The Children (1998); D. Parter, dir., John Lewis: Good Trouble (documentary, 2020).

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