Macdonald, Sir John Alexander

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Macdonald, Sir John Alexander,

1815–91, Canadian statesman, first prime minister of the Dominion of Canada, b. Glasgow. His parents settled in 1820 in Kingston, Ont. Macdonald first practiced law. With his election (1844) as a Conservative to the legislative assembly, he entered upon his long political career. A forceful man and a vigorous fighter, he quickly rose to leadership in the government of Upper Canada (Ontario). He and Georges Étienne CartierCartier, Sir Georges Étienne
, 1814–73, Canadian statesman, b. Quebec prov. He was called to the bar of Lower Canada (Quebec) in 1835. He took part in the rebellion of 1837 inspired by Louis Joseph Papineau and was forced to flee to the United States, but he
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 of Lower Canada headed the Liberal-Conservatives (a coalition largely of Macdonald's creating), and he became prime minister in 1857. This government fell in 1858, but he continued as a cabinet minister until 1862. He briefly returned (1864) as prime minister before he was joined by George BrownBrown, George,
1818–80, Canadian statesman and journalist, b. Scotland. In 1837 he emigrated to the United States, but after five years in New York City, he settled in Toronto, Ont.
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 and others in the "great coalition" ministry (1864–67), which paved the way for the union of the British North American provinces. Macdonald was the most potent figure in bringing about confederation (1867) of the provinces as the Dominion of Canada. His policy as prime minister was dominated by the vigorous attempt to build Canada. Believing that the dominion's prosperity required strong bonds with England, he worked throughout his career to that end. The Northwest Territories were taken over from the Hudson's Bay Company in 1869; to facilitate their development, Macdonald's government decided to construct the Canadian Pacific Railway. His personal popularity was not enough when the Pacific scandalPacific scandal,
1873, a major event in Canadian political history. Charges were made in Parliament that the Conservative administration of Sir John A. Macdonald had accepted campaign funds from Sir Hugh Allan in return for a promise to award Allan's syndicate the contract to
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, which involved the railroad, broke (1873), and the government resigned. Changing industrial conditions made Macdonald the advocate of a protectionist policy (known as the National Policy), and he was returned as prime minister in 1878 and served until his death. The transcontinental railroad was completed (1885), and other public works were accomplished. Macdonald was knighted in 1867.


See his correspondence, ed. by J. Pope (1921); biographies by his nephew, J. P. Macpherson (2 vol., 1891) and D. G. Creighton (1952 and 1956); study by D. Swainson (1971).

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References in periodicals archive ?
"In 1985 manager John MacDonald left abruptly and I picked up the job from him, and I continued as player-manager until the end of the season.
John Macdonald was one of the primary figures behind the movement to integrate the various colonial provinces of what is today Canada into a federal system; an effort sparked in large part by the American Civil War raging to Canada's south.
John MacDonald will give a demonstration of his craft at the meeting ONTUESDAY,February 26, which takes place in Oakshaw Trinity Church hall from 7.30pm till 9.30pm.
West End Grand Bahama, Bahamas, The, September 11, 2018 --( After months of negotiations and due diligence, an agreement was reached between West End Resorts Limited (WERL) and a Bahamian Company controlled by Old Bahama Bay Resort & Yacht Harbour operator President John MacDonald to expand upon what is already one of the most beautiful resorts in all the Bahamas.
Held at Ravenscraig on Sunday, local players will be playing with - or facing off against - Motherwell 1991 cup winner Iain Ferguson, former Celtic ANDWEST Ham star Frank McAvennie (pictured below) and former Gers striker John MacDonald amongst others.
Chairman John Macdonald gave the immortal memory and Ian McQueen added a further tribute.
John Macdonald was sentenced to four months after claiming he panicked and was full of remorse.
Lixin Shi and John MacDonald with the world's first wireless charger at a technology conference in San Francisco.
John Macdonald, managing "director, said the company was "delighted" with his interest.
"We decided to work on a very scaled down version for the Olympic project to help manage costs," said John MacDonald of HDM20 Corp.