John Major


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Major, John,

1469–1550, Scottish theologian and historian. He studied and taught at the Univ. of Paris. His works, all in Latin, were published there. He was one of the most famous teachers of scholastic philosophy of his day, at Paris and later at the Univ. of Glasgow and at St. Salvator's College, St. Andrews. The best known of his works is Historia Majoris Britanniae, tam Angliae quam Scotiae (Paris, 1521; Edinburgh, 1740). His History of Greater Britain, both England and Scotland was the first critical history of Scotland. An English translation by Archibald Constable was published (1892) with a biography by Aeneas J. G. Mackay. Major's name was also spelled Mair.

Major, John,

1943–, British statesman, b. John Major Ball. Raised in a working-class area of London, he was elected to Lambeth borough council (1968–71) and entered Parliament as a Conservative in 1979. He became Prime Minister Margaret ThatcherThatcher, Margaret Hilda Roberts Thatcher, Baroness,
1925–2013, British political leader. Great Britain's first woman prime minister, nicknamed the "Iron Lady" for her uncompromising political stance, Thatcher served longer than any other British prime minister in the 20th
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's chief secretary to the Treasury in 1987, foreign secretary in 1989, and, later that year, chancellor of the exchequer. A Thatcher loyalist, he became her successor after she withdrew from the 1990 party elections. Diplomatic and respected, even by the opposition, he moderated the Thatcher government's controversial poll tax and its opposition to greater integration into the European Community (now the European UnionEuropean Union
(EU), name given since the ratification (Nov., 1993) of the Treaty of European Union, or Maastricht Treaty, to the European Community (EC), an economic and political confederation of European nations, and other organizations (with the same member nations)
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). He provided military support to the United States in the Persian Gulf WarPersian Gulf Wars,
two conflicts involving Iraq and U.S.-led coalitions in the late 20th and early 21st cent.

The First Persian Gulf War, also known as the Gulf War, Jan.–Feb.
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 (1991). In 1992, Major and the Conservatives again defeated Labour in a national election. Despite a political setback in 1992 when his government could no longer support the minimum exchange level of the pound within the exchange-rate mechanism of the European Monetary SystemEuropean Monetary System,
arrangement by which most nations of the European Union (EU) linked their currencies to prevent large fluctuations relative to one another. It was organized in 1979 to stabilize foreign exchange and counter inflation among members.
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, Major was able to win ratification of the Treaty of European Union (Maastricht Treaty) in 1993. In 1994 his government's representatives participated in the negotiation of a cease-fire in Northern Ireland. Although party infighting, policy changes, and scandals eroded his parliamentary and public support, Major was reaffirmed as Conservative party leader in 1995. After the Conservatives were defeated by Tony BlairBlair, Tony
(Anthony Charles Lynton Blair), 1953–, British politician, b. Edinburgh. An Oxford-educated lawyer, he was first elected to Parliament in 1983 as the Labour party candidate from a district in N England.
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 and Labour in a landslide in 1997, Major resigned as party leader; he retired from Parliament in 2001

Bibliography

See E. Pearce, The Quiet Rise of John Major (1991).

References in periodicals archive ?
The fact John Major is now following the First Minister's idea, is to be welcomed.
MILLIONAIRE": Holmfirth man John Major celebrates his status after winning the airport prize draw
The Labour leader Ed Miliband, his deputy Harriet Harman and the former prime minister Sir John Major will all give evidence to the Leveson Inquiry into press standards on Tuesday.
For his part, John Major expressed happiness for visiting Kurdistan and his participation in the opening of a British Consulate in Kurdistan.
Baroness Thatcher was invited as she is a Lady of the Order, and Sir John Major as he became legal guardian to William and Harry after Diana died.
I told John Major I had better learn the national anthem, and he told me to take Wales to my heart.
Sports mad John Major was at Edgbaston Cricket Ground in Birmingham on July 31 last year when England played the West Indies in the second npower Test.
It is usual for former prime ministers to be appointed and 62-year-old Mr Major now becomes Sir John Major.
THE friend of John Major who was gunned down after trying to stop a bank robbery said today he had been motivated by "anger".
Others will draw the inevitable comparisons between Major, the premier whose catchphrase was `Back To Basics' and whose politics were supposed to be all about honesty and decency and John Major, the secret adulterer.
Drawing from interviews with Bill Clinton; British prime ministers Margaret Thatcher, John Major and Tony Blair; Irish Taoiseaches (Irish prime ministers) Garrett FitzGerald, Albert Reynolds and Bertie Ahern; Sinn Fein leaders Gerry Adams and Martin McGuinness; secret assassins; and a host of others, ``Endgame in Ireland'' examines the past two decades of The Troubles.