John Ray


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.
Related to John Ray: Carolus Linnaeus, Carolus Linnæus

Ray or Wray, John,

1627–1705, English naturalist. He was extremely influential in laying the foundations of systematic biology. With his pupil Francis Willughby, he planned a complete classification of the vegetable and animal kingdoms and toured Europe collecting specimens. On Willughby's death, Ray organized and published the material left by his friend. Ray's own work—the botanical part of the project—includes the important Historia plantarum (3 vol., 1686–1704). Ray was the first to name and make the distinction between monocotyledons and dicotyledons. He was also the first to define and explain the term species in the modern sense of the word. Ray studied and wrote on quadrupeds, reptiles, and birds. The Ray Society for the publication of scientific works was founded in his honor in 1844.

Bibliography

See his Correspondence, ed. by E. Lankester (1848) and Further Correspondence, ed. by R. W. Gunther (1928); C. E. Raven, John Ray, Naturalist (2d ed. 1951).

Ray, John

 

Born Nov. 29, 1627, in Black Notley, Essex; died Jan. 17, 1705, in Dewlands, near Black Notley. English biologist. Fellow of the Royal Society of London (1667).

Ray was the first to compile a list of the plants of England (1670). In his three-volume Historia generalis plantarum (1686–1704) he described and classified 18,600 species. Ray proposed the first natural system of plant classification, introduced the concepts of dicotyledons and monocotyledons, and differentiated plants into those with bisexual and those with diclinous flowers. In Synopsis methodica animalium quadrupe-dum et serpentini generis (1693), Ray used the concepts of genus and species in his classification, defining a species in a way that basically coincides with the modern definition.

Ray also wrote a number of books on linguistics, folklore, and natural theology.

REFERENCES

Raven, C. E. John Ray, Naturalist. Cambridge, 1950.
Keynes, G. L. John Ray, a Bibliography. London, 1951.
References in periodicals archive ?
For in contrast to John Ray, Erasmus believed in transmutation--evolution, in modern parlance.
but it also has suspiciously high levels of ozone, says John Ray of the National Park Service's Air Resources Division: "We don't know the reason.
First place in "Most Heart Healthy Dish" went to John Ray Denison, an eighth-grader at J.
Federal Court Judge Susan Webber Wright said in her court order that Rebecca Bush's evidence didn't prove her case against the AG, John Ray White, the Deputy Attorney General for the criminal department, and Robert Russell, who was the Chief Deputy Attorney General when she was fired.
Last night John Ray, senior partner of J&L Electrics, said: 'The bounced cheque was the final straw in what has been a sorry affair from beginning to end.
2) John Ray in English Proverbs under the heading `An Alphabet of Joculary, Nugatory, and Rustick Proverbs' lists `Hold or cut Cod-piece-point' which of course is a joke and may well be a parody of Shakespeare's phrase.
For instance, he speaks fondly of 17th-century scientist John Ray, who "stands in the long line of religious scientists who can see God at the end of their microscopes.
Boarding in the house of a chemist, he studied botany at the Apothecaries' Garden in Chelsea, and soon came to the notice of John Ray (1627?
Jo Gladstone's work on seventeenth-century English botanist John Ray, reflects both the scientist's concern for accuracy and the extent of social alienation during the Commonwealth.
According to an early August poll by Black Entertainment Television, City Councilman John Ray has 32 percent of registered Democrats and Barry has 29 percent - a virtual dead heat.
The first to do a modern job of classification was an English naturalist, John Ray (1627-1705).
Spray Nine's new manufacturer representatives include Access Partners, Henson Sales Group, LTD, John Ray Representatives, Legends Marketing, Rotating Technologies, Route 66 Marketing, Sandler & Sons, Southeastern Marketing, and TNT Marketing.