John Rutledge

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Rutledge, John,

1739–1800, American jurist and political leader, 2d chief justice of the United States, b. Charleston, S.C.; brother of Edward RutledgeRutledge, Edward,
1749–1800, political leader in the American Revolution, signer of the Declaration of Independence, b. Charleston, S.C.; brother of John Rutledge. He studied law at the Middle Temple, London, and was admitted (1772) to the English bar.
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. After studying law in London he began practice in Charleston, S.C., in 1761. He rose to prominence when quite young, was a member (1762) of the provincial assembly, attorney general of South Carolina (1764–65), and a delegate (1765) to the Stamp Act Congress. He twice (1774–76, 1782–83) was a member of the Continental Congress and meanwhile held strong sway as president (1776–78) of his state and later (1779–82) as governor. As delegate (1787) to the Constitutional Convention, Rutledge played an important role in the drafting of the U.S. Constitution, and then (1788) was a member of the state ratifying convention. After serving (1789–91) as associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court he was chief justice of South Carolina. In July, 1795, he was appointed interim chief justice of the United States and presided at the August term of the Supreme Court, but the Senate (Dec., 1795) refused to confirm the appointment because of his bitter attacks on Jay's TreatyJay's Treaty,
concluded in 1794 between the United States and Great Britain to settle difficulties arising mainly out of violations of the Treaty of Paris of 1783 and to regulate commerce and navigation.
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See biography by R. H. Barry (1942, repr. 1971).

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Rutledge, John

(1739–1800) governor; born in Charleston, S.C. (brother of Edward Rutledge). Educated in London, he returned to Charleston to become a brilliant lawyer. He was delegate to the First and Second Continental Congresses (1774–75), returning home to join the Council of Safety, to serve as the first president of South Carolina (1776–78), and to fight in the American Revolution. As South Carolina's governor (1779–82), he reestablished civil government in a state that had been torn apart by war. A defender of wealth and privilege—and of the slave trade—he was a delegate to the Constitutional Convention of 1787 and tried to halt the adoption of direct popular election of the president and Congress. He was one of the first associate justices on the new U.S. Supreme Court (1789–91), but stepped down to become South Carolina's chief justice (1791–95). Nominated in 1795 as chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, he was rejected by the Senate because of his attacks on the recent Jay Treaty.
The Cambridge Dictionary of American Biography, by John S. Bowman. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1995. Reproduced with permission.
References in periodicals archive ?
A committee was appointed to draft the constitution and the Middle Templar John Rutledge of South Carolina was appointed chair of the five-person committee.
The spotlight shifted to the slavery provisions, and John Rutledge rather than Wilson now becomes the Committee mastermind.
While John Jay was a lawyer and had briefly served as chief justice of the New York Supreme Court of Judicature in the 1770s, he did so "erratically and without distinction." (29) John Rutledge later wrote somewhat huffily to Washington, recalling the events of 1789:
(50) See in Table 1 the recess appointments of Thomas Johnson in 1791, John Rutledge (to be Chief Justice) in 1795, Bushrod Washington in 1798, H.
Groomsmen were Michael Edward Todd Carter, of Huntsville, Alabama; John Rutledge Sanders, Jr., Michael Brandon Edwards, and James Tillman Ewing, all of Tupelo; Dr.
Opponents blocked George Washington's Supreme Court nominee Judge John Rutledge because of Rutledge's opposition to the Jay Treaty (despite the fact that the Senate had already confirmed him for a previous opening on the Court and that he had just served for an entire Supreme Court term as the interim chief justice).
One of the key speakers was Dr John Rutledge, founder of Rutledge Capital, a private merchant banking firm.
Caspar Weinberger wrote about Bosnia twice (October 9 and December 18, 1995), Thomas Sowell discussed term limits in a September 11 column, and John Rutledge mentioned the gold standard and the fiat tax in a November 6 column on the Phillips curve.
While this might bring to mind Ronald Reagan's failed nomination of Robert Bork in 1987, it was the fate of John Rutledge (who had been an associate justice and chaired the Constitutional Committee of Detail) who was nominated by George Washington to be chief justice in 1795.
Indeed, Maltese finds striking parallels to the Bork confirmation battle in the first failed Supreme Court nomination - the 1795 nomination of John Rutledge as Chief Justice (pp.
As varied as the individual backgrounds and the contemporary settings, the reasons range from a clamor against confirming John Rutledge, who was President Washington's nominee in 1795, because of a speech against the Jay Treaty, to the increased voting power of Southern blacks as a deciding factor in the 58-42 Senate vote against Robert Bork, President Reagan's ill-fated nominee in 1987.
In 1795 the Senate turned down George Washington's nomination of John Rutledge as Chief Justice.