John Wyclif


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Wyclif, Wycliffe, Wickliffe, or Wiclif, John

(all: wĭk`lĭf), c.1328–1384, English religious reformer. A Yorkshireman by birth, Wyclif studied and taught theology and philosophy at Oxford. He was later made rector at Fillingham (1361), at Ludgershall (1368), and at Lutterworth (1374). His belief in the doctrine that Christ is humanity's only overlord and that power should depend on a state of grace made him a champion of the people against the abuses of the church. He early associated himself with the anticlerical party in the nation and in 1374 was sent to Bruges to represent the English crown in negotiations over payment of tribute to the Holy See. From 1377 he made many vigorous attacks in both Latin and English on orthodox church doctrines, especially that of transubstantiation. Through his own preaching in the vernacular at Oxford and London and the itinerant teaching of his "poor priests," he spread the doctrine that the Scriptures are the supreme authority and that the good offices of the church are not requisite to grace. He was condemned as a heretic in 1380 and again in 1382, and his followers were persecuted, but he was not disturbed in his retirement at Lutterworth, where he died in 1384. The Wyclif Bible is a great landmark in the history of the BibleBible
[Gr.,=the books], term used since the 4th cent. to denote the Christian Scriptures and later, by extension, those of various religious traditions. This article discusses the nature of religious scripture generally and the Christian Scriptures specifically, as well as the
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 and of the English language. This first and literal translation of the Latin Vulgate Bible into English was mainly the work of his followers, notably Nicholas Hereford; the smoother revision of c.1395 was directed by Wyclif's follower John Purvey. In England the Lollards (see LollardryLollardry
or Lollardy,
medieval English movement for ecclesiastical reform, led by John Wyclif, whose "poor priests" spread his ideas about the countryside in the late 14th cent.
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) formed the link between Wyclif and the Protestant Reformation; on the Continent he was a chief forerunner of the Reformation, through his influence on Jan HussHuss, John
, Czech Jan Hus , 1369?–1415, Czech religious reformer. Early Life

Of peasant origin, he was born in Husinec, Bohemia (from which his name is derived). He studied theology at the Univ. of Prague, was ordained a priest c.
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, the Bohemian reformer, and through Huss on Martin Luther and the Moravians.

Bibliography

See editions of most of his works by the Wyclif Society; biography by H. B. Workman (1926); G. M. Trevelyan, England in the Age of Wycliffe (new ed. 1972); K. B. McFarlane, John Wycliffe and the Beginnings of English Nonconformity (1953); J. Stacey, John Wyclif and Reform (1964); J. C. Carrick, Wycliffe and the Lollards (1977); L. B. Hall, The Perilous Vision of John Wyclif (1983).

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References in periodicals archive ?
(39) John Wyclif, Of seruauntis & lordis hou eche schal kepe his degree, in The English Works of Wyclif, ed.
Prescinding from the fact that no Wycliffite confession of faith (a la Augsburg or Trent) exists to which the disparate admirers of John Wyclif (d.
The entire volume is devoted to the life and times of the fourteenth-century Oxford theologian John Wyclif. This might seem daunting material, but Satterlee inhabits Wyclif and his world with an apparent effortlessness that is the result of both study and craft.
John Wyclif decried the papacy's attacks on Christians of good conscience, yet he can hardly be considered tolerant.
"Actor or Author: John Wyclif s Teaching and Fame as Authorship of History." The AnaChronisT [8] 2002: 9-26.
Thus he describes the chronological scope of the volume as "from John Wyclif to John Wimber via John Wesley."
Philosophy and Politics in the Thought of John Wyclif. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Life and Thought.
Levy, Ian Christopher, John Wyclif: Scriptural Logic, Real Presence, and the Parameters of Orthodoxy.
"Ed Sanders is John Wyclif 1380 announcing the end of transubstantiation, or the beginning, which[ever] way you choose to look at it." Suggesting Sanders's "Total Assault on t he Culture" qualified him as a genuine radical dissenter in the great tradition of the Protestant Revolution, Darn quoted in full the Fugs song "Coca Cola Douche." "I'm obviously turned on by the paradoxical aspects of thinking," he would say a few years later.
(22) The Wycliffite writer outlined the principle at length in a sermon of the Gospel text of Luke 10:16, "Qui vos audit, me audit," about which he declared, "This gospel tellith a lore of Crist, how he tauete his disciples to holde hem in mekenesse and to flee vayn glorie that is fendis sinne," before using the Fall of Satan to demonstrate that the physics of storm was intimately linked to the punishment of pride (Select English Works of John Wyclif, ed.
The first is Albert the Great and the last, John Wyclif -- the selection itself shows the range and development of mediaeval thought.