John XXI

John XXI,

d. 1277, pope (1276–77), a Portuguese named Pedro Giuliano; successor of Adrian V. Known generally as Peter of Spain (Petrus Hispanus), he is the only Portuguese pope. Peter's reputation as a scholastic philosopher was widespread, and he was the reputed author of an extensively used book on logic. Nine months after his election the ceiling of his library at Viterbo fell and killed him. Due to confusion in the medieval listing of popes named John, he called himself John XXI instead of John XX; this numbering is usually maintained. He was succeeded by Nicholas III.
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In 1277, Stephan Tempier, the Bishop of Paris, acted on a letter from Pope John XXI that expressed concern about the influence of Arab and Aristotelian philosophy and heretical doctrines being taught at the University of Paris.
However, there have only been two popes each from two of the most Catholic nations of earth: Spain (Pope Alexander VI and Pope Callixtus III) and Portugal (Pope Damasus and Pope John XXI).
1277: Pope John XXI. Killed when a ceiling fell on him.
(59) Works on logic included the Summulae logicales of Petrus Hispanus who became Pope John XXI (+ 1277) and the Dialectica of the Jesuit Cardinal Francisco de Toledo (c.