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John XXIII,antipope: see Cossa, BaldassareCossa, Baldassare
, c.1370–1419, Neapolitan churchman, antipope (1410–15; see Schism, Great) with the name John XXIII. He had a military career before entering the service of the church.
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(Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli). Born Nov. 25, 1881, in Sotto il Monte, Bergamo; died June 3, 1963, in the Vatican. Pope; elected in 1958.
Between 1925 and 1953, John XXIII was the papal nuncio in a number of countries; he served as patriarch of Venice in 1953–58 and held the office of cardinal from 1953. John XXIII introduced new Vatican policies designed to help the Catholic Church adapt to changing world conditions. He advocated peaceful coexistence between states with different social systems and was in favor of disarmament and the peaceful settlement of international disputes. He convened the Second Vatican Council in 1962 in order that the Catholic Church might chart a new course and consolidate its position.