Johnston Atoll


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Johnston Atoll,

atoll, 2.8 sq mi (7.25 sq km), central Pacific, c.700 nautical mi (1,300 km) SW of Honolulu, central Pacific, an uninc. territory of the United States. It consists of four islands and reefs. The largest island, Johnston Island, c.3,000 ft (910 m) long and c.600 ft (180 m) wide, has been significantly expanded with dredged fill. The atoll is the site of a wildlife refuge.

Johnston Atoll was discovered by Americans in 1796, or the British in 1807, and was claimed by both the United States and the Kingdom of Hawaii in 1858; it was not, however, included in the state of Hawaii. U.S. companies exploited the island for guano until the 1880s. A bird sanctuary since the 1920s, the strategic island was under U.S. Navy control from 1934 and Air Force control after 1948, now jointly with the Dept. of the Interior.

In the 1950s and 60s the United States conducted a series of nuclear tests there, causing some radioactive contamination of the atoll; the area was also a chemical and biological weapons storage and incineration site. Contaminated soil is now stored in a landfill. Since 2009 it has been part of the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National MonumentPacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument,
c.490,000 sq mi (1,260,000 sq km), central Pacific Ocean; est. 2009. The monument comprises the waters and reefs surrounding seven islands and atolls, and in most cases the island lands are managed as wildlife refuges as well.
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References in periodicals archive ?
The proposed genus Quarjavirus contains the 3 virus species: Quaranfil, Johnston Atoll, and Lake Chad viruses (5), and, now, a fourth member--CyRV.
Today, Johnston Atoll is a wildlife refuge, providing habitat for endangered and threatened waterfowl and marine species.
Since 1971, the TEU has been removing chemical weapons and munitions in Japan and Germany, and storing and destroying them on Johnston Atoll, in the Marshall Islands.
The United States has at present more than a million munitions armed with mustard agents alone, mostly artillery shells stockpiled in eight states (Maryland, Alabama, Kentucky, Indiana, Arizona, Colorado, Utah, and Oregon) and Johnston Atoll. Taking into account all chemical weapons agents, the United States has more than 31,000 tons of chemical weapons material encased in millions of muni tions at these nine sites.
Since 1990, the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System has destroyed more than 4 million pounds of nerve and mustard agents stored in more than 400,000 rockets, projectiles, bombs, mines and 1-ton containers.
The man who ran the former Soviet Union's biological weapons program says the United States conducted germ warfare tests at the Johnston Atoll in the South Pacific, an allegation confirmed by a former U.S.
The Taeping retired from the race and headed to Johnston Atoll, near Honolulu.
storage sites: on Johnston Atoll, about 800 miles south of Hawaii, and in Tooele, Utah (SN: 12/10/94, p.
Johnston Atoll (Southwest of Hawaii): 6.6 percent nerve agents
The Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS) exists solely for the purpose of destroying obsolete - and frightening - chemical weapons.
The Army plans to spend $67 million for the storage and disposal of chemical weapons already at tiny Johnston Atoll, which is upwind and upcurrent of the Marshalls.