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(also Johor), a state (sultanate) in Malaysia at the extreme southern end of the Malay Peninsula. Area, 19,000 sq km; population in 1968, 1.4 million (mainly Chinese and Malays, but also Indians). Its administrative center is Johore Bahru. Its industries include the primary treatment of rubber and the mining of bauxites, iron, and tin. There are oil and fruit-canning industries and a cotton-weaving mill. Agricultural commodities, including rubber, pineapples, and coconut and palm oil products, are exported primarily by way of Singapore.
Johore was a part of the Malaccan sultanate unil 1511. After the Portuguese captured the city of Malacca, the Malaccan ruler Mahmud founded the Johore sultanate. During the second half of the 17th century, Johore’s rule ex-tended to southern, central, and eastern Malaya and the eastern coast of Sumatra. In alliance with the Dutch, Johore struggled against Portuguese rule in Malacca during the 16th and the first half of the 17th century. In 1722 the Bugis seized control of Johore, but at the end of the 18th century the territory of Johore proper became an independent appanage of one of the feudal families of the Johore sultanate. In 1819 the British gained a foothold in Singapore, which was a part of Johore. In 1855 and 1885 they forced agreements on Johore, making it a British protectorate. Johore was a part of the Malayan Union from 1946 to 1948, and a part of the Federation of Malaya (a British colony) from 1948 to 1957 The Johore sultanate has been a state in the independent Federation of Malaya since 1957 and a state in the Federation of Malaysia since 1963.
REFERENCEWinstedt, R. O. “A History of Johore, 1365-1895.” Journal of the Malay an Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1932, vol. 10, part 3.
V. A. TIURIN