A common academic use of e-mail involves joint authorship
of papers by writers who reside in different cities.
educators: the student-professor relationship, joint authorship
, and ethics in publishing.
Table 3 and Graph 1shows the majority 74(89.156%) of the papers have been written in joint authorship
. It is seen that only 9(10.843%) of the publications were single authored articles.
Although a complete history of the Welles litigation would not suit our purposes here, some brief background on his claims and the courts' rulings will aid our ensuing look at idea-contribution and joint authorship
, helping us understand both why Welles lost his bid for a share in the copyright as well as how we might view things differently today.
The Copyright Act defines a "joint work" as "a work prepared by two or more authors with the intention that their contributions be merged into inseparable or interdependent parts of a unitary whole." (42) While the circuit courts are not in complete agreement on the proper method for determining joint authorship
, several courts require that each "author's" contribution to the work be independently copyrightable and that each purported author intended to be coauthors of the work.
It was, no doubt, organised to facilitate the production of the directories but this organisation was not collaboration of the kind contemplated by the definition of joint authorship
, and the contribution of each of the groups of individuals referred to earlier was made quite separately.
Although little documentary evidence survives regarding the reception of collaborative works in the seventeenth century, testifying to their status is the frequency with which paintings of joint authorship
Beaghler made us aware of joint authorship
of this column," said Davy.
Asking me to write about joint authorship
is rather like going to a vegetarian for a treatise on the proper cooking of steak.
> 447 (86.127%) papers have been written in joint authorship
. It is seen that only 72 (13.872%) of the publications were single authored articles.
(111) Certain cases have even accorded joint authorship
status to substantial intellectual contributions that partly shape the output, even if the contributor was not 'pushing the pen'.
In contrast, Najemy treats their correspondence as a profoundly literary and self-conscious product of "joint authorship
." He is the first scholar to truly consider Vettori as Machiavelli's intellectual equal, as well as his friend and professional colleague.