(1894–1969) film director; born in Vienna, Austria. In New York at age 17, he became a film patcher for World Film. In 1917 he joined the Army Signal Corps and made training films. His first movie was The Salvation Hunters (1925). He became the master of the American screen with his pictorial compositions and light and shadow effects. Among his films were The Blue Angel (1930), The Scarlet Empress (1934), and Macao (1952).