Austen Chamberlain

(redirected from Joseph Austen Chamberlain)
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Chamberlain, Austen

 

(also Joseph A. Chamberlain). Born Oct. 16, 1863, in Birmingham; died Mar. 16, 1937, in London. British state figure. Son of Joseph Chamberlain.

Austen Chamberlain, who was educated at the exclusive Rugby School and at Cambridge University, entered Parliament in 1892. He served as financial secretary to the treasury from 1900 to 1902, postmaster general in 1902, and chancellor of the exchequer from 1903 to 1905 and from 1919 to 1921. He was secretary of state for India from 1915 to 1917, a member of the war cabinet in 1918, minister without portfolio in 1921 and 1922, and foreign secretary from 1924 to 1929.

Chamberlain fought to establish Great Britain as the leading European power. He favored a strong and rearmed Germany, hoping to use it against the USSR and as a counterbalance to France; the signing of the Locarno Treaties of 1925 was a major step toward the realization of this policy. Chamberlain helped initiate the breaking off of diplomatic relations with the USSR in 1927 (relations were resumed in 1929 by the new Labour government) and sought to renew the military intervention in the USSR. He served as first lord of the admiralty in 1931. In his final years, Chamberlain spoke out in Parliament about the aggressive intentions of Germany.

V. G. TRUKHANOVSKII

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Eldest son Joseph Austen Chamberlain went on to win the Nobel Peace Prize for his work to secure the signatures of world leaders over the Locarno treaties and was Chancellor from 1903 to 1905.
In his will, he left an impressive pounds 126,019, pounds 10 million at today's rate, to sons Joseph Austen Chamberlain and Arthur Neville Chamberlain.
Joseph Austen Chamberlain, born in 1863 held the posts of Postmaster General, Chancellor of the Exchequer and Secretary of State for India, and became leader of the Conservative Party in 1921.
Only one tile impressed with their names on the reverse is known to exist: a portrait of Sir Joseph Austen Chamberlain, subsequently winner of the 1925 Nobel Peace Prize,executed in a weak grey glaze.
Joseph Austen Chamberlain, born in 1863, was the son of former Birmingham mayor Joseph Chamberlain
Also on This Day: 1555: Protestant martyrs Bishop Hugh Latimer and Hugh Ridley were burnt at the stake opposite Balliol College, Oxford; 1793: Marie Antoinette was guillotined; 1854: Birth of Irish playwright and author Oscar Wilde; 1863: Birth of Sir Joseph Austen Chamberlain; 1890: Birth of Irish leader Michael Collins; 1886: Birth of Israeli statesman Ben Gurion; 1908: US aviator Samuel Cody became the first man to fly in Britain when he demonstrated his aircraft at Farnborough; 1964: Harold Wilson became Prime Minister; 1978: Polish Cardinal Karol Wojyla became first non-Italian pope since 1542.
Also on this day: 1660: The Long Parliament of England dissolved; 1872: Wanderers beat Royal Engineers 1-0 at Kenington Oval in first FA Cup Final; 1888: First recorded sale of a manufactured motor car when Emile Roger of Paris bought petrol-driven vehicle from Karl Benz's new factory; 1935: Hitler renounced the Treaty of Versailles and reintroduced compulsory military service; 1937: Death of statesman Sir Joseph Austen Chamberlain (pictured right); 1973: The new London Bridge opened by the Queen; 1968: American troops killed 175 unarmed villagers in Mai Lai, Vietnam.
Anniversaries: 1660: The Long Parliament of England dissolved; 1802: The United States Military Academy established at West Point; 1872: Wanderers beat Royal Engineers 1-0 at Kenington Oval in first FA Cup Final; 1888: First recorded sale of a manufactured motor car when Emile Roger of Paris bought a petrol-driven vehicle from Karl Benz's new factory; 1935: Hitler renounced the Treaty of Versailles and reintroduced compulsory military service; 1937: Death of statesman Sir Joseph Austen Chamberlain; 1973: The new London Bridge opened by the Queen; 1968: American troops killed 175 unarmed villagers in Mai Lai, Vietnam.