Caillaux, Joseph

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Caillaux, Joseph

(zhôzĕf` kāyō`), 1863–1944, French statesman. Son of a former cabinet minister, he entered the French civil service as inspector of finance. He later became finance minister in the cabinet of René Waldeck-Rousseau (1899–1902) and in the cabinet of Georges Clemenceau (1906–9), winning considerable unpopularity by introducing the income tax. As premier in 1911, he reached a peaceful settlement of the crisis over MoroccoMorocco
, officially Kingdom of Morocco, kingdom (2005 est. pop. 32,726,000), 171,834 sq mi (445,050 sq km), NW Africa. Morocco is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea (N), the Atlantic Ocean (W), Western Sahara (S), and Algeria (S and E).
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 with Germany. However, he was severely attacked by the nationalists, and his cabinet fell in 1912. In 1913 he again became minister of finance. He resigned in 1914 to defend his wife, who had shot and killed Gaston Calmette, editor of Le Figaro, for attacking Caillaux's private life. Mme Caillaux was acquitted. Caillaux expressed pacifist sentiments during World War I and allegedly made contact with the Germans to discuss a negotiated peace. He was arrested (1917) and sentenced (1920) to three years imprisonment for involvement with the enemy. After his civil rights were restored under a general amnesty, Caillaux served as finance minister in the cabinets of Paul Painlevé (1925) and Aristide Briand (1926), but after each appointment a hostile chamber of deputies forced his resignation. He was subsequently elected to the senate.

Bibliography

See R. Binion, Defeated Leaders: The Political Fate of Caillaux, Jouvenel, and Tardieu (1960).

References in periodicals archive ?
As for France, had the crisis not occurred exactly when it did, the acquittal of Madame Caillaux on 28 July for the murder of the editor of the newspaper Le Figaro might well have paved the way for the appointment of a ministry involving Joseph Caillaux as well as the socialist leader Jean Jaures, thereby eclipsing the staunchly nationalist (and pro-Russian) President Poincare.
Events might have developed differently had fortune not removed from the scene, either permanently or temporarily, voices that might have counselled moderation: Franz Ferdinand in Austria-Hungary; Joseph Caillaux in France; Alfred von Kiderlen-Wachter in Germany; Petr Stolypin and Grigorii Rasputin in Russia.
In the worst case, the collapse of the Union sacree would lead to a government under the former prime minister, Joseph Caillaux, which would agree to a compromise peace with Germany.