Joseph Jacques Césaire Joffre
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Joffre, Joseph Jacques Césaire
Born Jan. 12, 1852, in’Rivesaltes; died Jan. 3, 1931, in Paris. Became marshal of France in 1916 and a member of the Academic Frangaise in 1918.
Joffre fought in the Franco-Prussian war (1870–71) and in colonial wars in Indochina and Africa. In 1910 he became a member of the Conseil Superieur de la Guerre and in 1911 became both vice-president of the Conseil and chief of the general staff. From 1914 to 1916 he was commander in chief of the French Army. In 1914 he skillfully organized the French retreat and later achieved victory in the first battle of the Marne. In December 1916 he was made military adviser to the government. In 1917–18 he was the head of the French military mission to the United States and subsequently held the same post in Japan. His memoirs were published posthumously.