Josephson, Brian David

Josephson, Brian David,

1940–, British physicist, Ph.D. Cambridge, 1964. After several postdoctoral appointments, he joined the faculty at Cambridge in 1974. Josephson was co-recipient, with Leo Esaki and Ivar Giaever, of the 1973 Nobel Prize in Physics for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a super current through a tunnel barrier. Stimulated by Giaever's work on electron tunnelingtunneling,
quantum-mechanical effect by which a particle can penetrate a barrier into a region of space that would be forbidden by ordinary classical mechanics. Tunneling is a direct result of the wavelike properties of particles; the wave associated with a particle "decays"
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 in superconductors, Josephson began to work on the phenomenon, leading to his prediction of the so-called Josephson effect in 1962. The effect, which describes current flow across two weakly coupled superconductors separated by a thin insulating barrier, has important applications in quantum-mechanical circuits.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Josephson, Brian David


Born Jan. 4, 1940, in Wales. British physicist. Fellow of the Royal Society of London (1970).

Josephson graduated from Cambridge University in 1960 and received a Ph.D. from the university in 1964. He joined the university’s staff in 1967 and became a professor in 1974. Josephson’s principal works deal with theoretical physics. In 1962 he predicted the existence of a tunnel effect in superconductors separated by a thin dielectric layer (the Josephson effect).

Josephson received a Nobel Prize in 1973.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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