A photometric accuracy of less than 1% is necessary to detect Jovian planets around Sun-like stars.
Four massive Jovian planets (HR 8799 b, c, d, e; not the order of semi-major axis but of discovery year) have been imaged, having masses of 5-13 [M.sub.Jupiter] at 15, 24, 38, and 68 AU.
According to Boss, even if a Jovian planet
took a few million years to form, as in the core-accretion model, that's still not enough time for Earth-size planets to have coalesced in the inner part of a protoplanetary disk.
The four "outer planets," called Jovian planets, are made up of gases, mostly hydrogen and helium.
Jovian planets rotate faster than terrestrial planets.
We there therefore conclude that: White dwarfs were formerly bulky planets like Jupiter and the great jovian planets
, which, containing mostly hydrogen, were compressed by gravitational pressure to such a state that the energy produced within is the same as that radiated from the surface.
Many solar-type stars clearly own Jovian planets
; a brief threat to their existence, having to do with waves on stellar surfaces, went away in 1998.
Using this equation (11), we could predict quantization of celestial orbits in the solar system, where for Jovian planets
we use least-square method and use M in terms of reduced mass [micro] = ([M.sub.1] + [M.sub.2])/[M.sub.1][M.sub.2].
Furthermore, the four terrestrial planets and the four large Jovian planets
are similar to one another in that they all dominate their respective parts of the solar system.
Eventually objects following such tracks will pass close to one of the Jovian planets
, whose gravitational influence will change the introder's orbit significantly and perhaps drastically.