Józef Pilsudski

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Piłsudski, Józef

 

Born Dec. 5, 1867, in Zułowo, Wilno (Vilnius) Province; died May 12, 1935, in Warsaw. Polish political figure. Son of a nobleman.

Piłsudski studied in the faculty of medicine at the University of Kharkov but was expelled in 1885 for participating in student disturbances. Arrested in 1887 and charged with plotting the assassination of Alexander III, he was exiled from 1888 to 1892. He joined the Polish Socialist Party (PPS) in 1892. In 1904, after the Russo-Japanese War broke out, he went to Tokyo to arrange a cooperative effort with Japanese intelligence, which was interested in weakening the Russian rear. From 1905 to 1907, in opposition to the joint struggle of the Polish and Russian proletariat, he created terrorist combat groups. In 1906, Piłsudski helped found the nationalistic Revolutionary Faction of the PPS. Hoping for the restoration of Poland’s independence if Austria-Hungary and Germany won a military victory over Russia, he cooperated with the Austro-Hungarian general staff, with whose support he organized intelligence work and created a diversionary terrorist organization in Galicia called the Shooters.

During World War I (1914-18), Piłsudski commanded a Polish legion that fought on the side of Austria-Hungary. At the end of 1916 he was appointed chief of the war department in the “government” of the “independent Polish state” created by the Austrian and German occupation forces. Piłsudski was arrested in July 1917 as a result of a conflict with occupation authorities, but after the November Revolution of 1918 in Germany he was freed. He traveled to Warsaw, where he took part in combating the revolutionary movement.

Piłsudski was proclaimed “chief of state” (dictator) in 1918, a position he held until the end of 1922. He was named chief of state with the support of right-wing leaders of the PPS; the Polish Military Organization, which had been established by Piłsudski’s supporters; legionnaires; and like-minded persons in other parties. He dealt ruthlessly with the revolutionary movement, drew Poland into anti-Soviet intervention, and played an important role in organizing Poland’s attack on Soviet Russia in 1920. In May 1926, Piłsudski carried out a military coup; he established a sanacja regime in Poland “to restore the republic to health” and remained the de facto dictator of Poland until his death. In 1926 he became minister of war and inspector general of the armed forces; from 1926 to 1928 and again in 1930 he was also prime minister. Piłsudski concluded the Polish-German Agreement of 1934.

F. G. ZUEV

References in periodicals archive ?
delivery pedometers and the academy of physical education jozef pilsudski square in warsaw.
Since the person and the memory of Marshal Jozef Pilsudski became an integral part of the holiday's
That is one of the explanations for the miracle that was Israeli democracy -- a phenomenon that is well-nigh inexplicable, considering that almost all Israelis came from severely anti-democratic countries -- Russia of the Czar and the commissars, Morocco, Iraq and Iran of the authoritarian kings, Poland of Jozef Pilsudski and his heirs, and of course Jews and Arabs born in Ottoman and British Palestine.
The Bolsheviks thought they could advance into Central and Western Europe "over the corpse of Poland:' At the famous battle at the gates of Warsaw, called "the Miracle of the Vistula"--the revered Marshal Jozef Pilsudski turned back the Red tide.
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The main personages of the drama are Marshal Jozef Pilsudski, the founder of the modern Polish state and its authoritarian leader (who died in 1935) and who is worshiped by some in Poland still today, and Felix Dzerzhinsky, the founder of the Soviet secret service (who died in 1926) whose portraits were in every office of the KGB until the very collapse of the USSR.
To conquer and to rest on one's laurels - that's a disaster," he added, quoting the historic Polish patriot Jozef Pilsudski.
And in keeping with the exhibition's title, 'Not Only Art Deco', the curator, Magdalena Czubinska, has unveiled some extraordinary items from the Great War, including exquisitely designed military regalia relating to 'the father of Polish independence', Marshal Jozef Pilsudski.
But in August 1920 Marshal Jozef Pilsudski defeated the Russians and drove them out of Poland.
Jozef Pilsudski, father of the modern Polish state, expressed delight during a 1922 meeting with Nitobe in Warsaw over Japan's victory in the 1904-1905 Russo-Japanese war, according to the study.
From its construction in 1935 the liner was the pride and joy of the Polish fleet and was named after the pre-War polish leader and hero Marshal Jozef Pilsudski.
and Lech Wal-sa, "who had the necessary drooping moustache," thus allegedly becoming more popular than his political opponent since he modeled himself on the image of Marshal Jozef Pilsudski, a famous national hero.