Juan Domingo Perón

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Perón, Juan Domingo


Born Oct. 8, 1895, in Lobos; died July 1, 1974, in Buenos Aires. Argentine political leader and head of state.

A professional military man, Perón served as military attaché in Chile in 1936 and 1937. He spent the years 1937–40 in Europe, observing military training methods. From 1941 to 1943 he was a leader of the Grupo de Oficiales Unidos, an organization of army officers, which carried out a coup d’etat in Argentina in June 1943. Between 1943 and 1945, Perón was head secretary of the ministry of war, secretary of labor, and vice-president. From 1946 to 1955 he was president. In 1947 he founded the Peronist Party, which in 1955 was renamed the Justicialist Party. Taking advantage of the favorable economic situation that developed during and after World War II, Perón was able to satisfy some of the demands of the national bourgeoisie, especially in regard to foreign trade. He also made a number of concessions to the masses, the most important being the granting of wage increases to certain categories of workers.

Although he made use of anti-imperialist and nationalist slogans, Perón gradually gave in to pressure by imperialist US monopolies. The most reactionary circles in the country, taking advantage of the increasing dissatisfaction of the workers and middle strata, overthrew Perón in September 1955. Perón was an émigré in Spain from 1955 until June 1973. In September 1973 he once again became president of Argentina.


Codovilla, V. Izbr. stat’i i rechi. Moscow, 1970.
Ghioldi, R. “Peronizm i problemy bor’by progressivnykh sil za sozdanie edinogo fronta.” Latinskaia Amerika, 1972, no. 6; 1973, no. 1.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
She even served as labor and health minister in her husband's administration -- indeed, she became so popular she was able to form her own party, the female Peronist Party, the women's wing of Juan Peron's party structure.
The award winning musical depicts the life Eva Peron, the second wife of Argentinean President Juan Peron.
Guy concludes that the efforts of such women on behalf of mothers and children shaped the welfare state established during the first government of Juan Peron [1946-1955].
In the first section on documentaries, the topics include a look at Argentina today through the project of making a model of Juan Peron's state-of-the-art plane Pulqui; "direct cinema" and "cinema-verite" in Canadian film; the wrongful imprisonment of an Iraqi journalist at Abu Ghraib; and the American independent filmmaker Jennifer Fox.
She was also the third wife of former President, Juan Peron. During her husband's third term as president, Isabel served as vice president and following her husband's death in office; Isabel served as president from July 1, 1974 to March 24, 1976.
Then in 1945, she wed middle-aged widower and career army officer Juan Peron. His presidential victory the following year catapulted the young actress into the limelight and a new role as the blond Evita, crusader for social justice and equality.
Plan is for a final sweep in early December of potential Eva Perons in a casting search, says Lloyd Webber, stretching "as wide as literally to Argentina itself." (Philip Quast is expected to play Juan Peron.)
ELECTED PRESIDENT of Argentina in 1946, Juan Peron was reelected in 1952.
Prolific Argentine writer Jorge Luis Borges (1899-1986) was given the directorship of the Argentine National Library in 1955 after the deposition of Juan Peron. Borges, who was almost completely blind at the time, commented: "I speak of God's splendid irony in granting me at once eight hundred thousand books and darkness." An earlier position at the Buenos Aires Municipal Library as a cataloger with the tedious and endless task of documenting books helped inspire his famous short story "The Library of Babel" (1941).