Jubaea


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Jubaea

 

a genus of plants of the family Palmae. The sole species is J. spectabilis. The trunk measures 15–18 m in height and as much as 1 m in diameter. The crown consists of 60 to 100 pinnate leaves. The branching inflorescences reach 1.2–1.4 m in length, with the pistillate flowers at the base and the staminate ones on the upper section. The fruit is a drupe with a fleshy pericarp. The rounded seeds contain about 35 percent oil.

J. spectabilis grows on the Chilean coast at elevations to 1,200 m. The species has been greatly decimated. The sugary sap obtained from the trunk is used to make wine. The fruits and seeds are used in food, and the leaves are used as roof coverings. J. spectabilis is cultivated in parks along the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus (Sukhumi, Sochi).

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Similar, yet more resilient, varieties include the adaptable, heat-loving date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) and, although difficult to find, the more cold- and drought-tolerant Chilean wine palm (Jubaea chilensis).
Although the Arecaceae family has a wide distribution and a large number of species, the endemic Chilean palm, Jubaea chilensis (Mol.) Baill., is the only palm among continental native Chilean flora and therefore is considered a singular and important element of Chilean Mediterranean ecosystems (Gonzalez et al.
Easter Island has become a paragon of prehistoric human-induced ecological catastrophe and cultural collapse, based on two rather contradictory narratives: a) the effects of population increases and islanders' overexploitation of natural resources (i.e., soil erosion and widespread rapid deforestation of forests dominated by giant Jubaea palms) and self-destruction or "ecoside" (Diamond, 1995, 2005, 2007; Rolett & Diamond, 2004); and b) by a synergy of ecological impacts and, particularly, the devastating effects of introduced rats Rattus exulans on the island (Hunt, 2007; Hunt & Lipo, 2009).
et A.), quillay (Quillaja saponaria (Molina)) y boldo (Peumus boldus (Molina)), que extienden su distribucion a lo largo de mas de 2000km; no asi en el caso de otras especies como palma chilena (Jubaea chilensis (Molina) Baillon), confinada a areas muy especificas.
Hunt and Lipo do not dispute the palynological evidence for wholesale removal of the island's natural Jubaea palm dominated forests, but argue that the proximal cause of deforestation was predation on palm seeds and seedlings by the human-introduced Pacific rat (Rattus exulans).
para la Sub-region del Bosque Esclerofilo Costero describe las comunidades de: Beilschmiedia miersii-Crinodendron patagua, Cryptocarya alba-Schinus latifolius, Jubaea chilensis-Lithraea caustica, Drimys winteri-Luma chequen, Lithraea caustica-Peumus boldus, Cryptocarya alba-Luma chequen y Pouteria splendens-Lepechinia salviae.
La Campana (Sector Ocoa) vic Quebrada Buitrera, 28.XII.2008, Thayer, Clarke, 415m, 32 55.89' S, 71 05.10' W, sclerophyl woodland, Jubaea chilensis palms, Trichocereus cacti; dump mud & moss on sand, dry creek bed (1 male, 1 female FMNH).
La extension y la antiguedad de las formaciones secas en el sur de America del Sur seguramente permitieron el desarrollo de una flora diversificada de palmeras, lo que ocurrio en forma muy limitada en las formaciones secas de pequena extension de la costa pacifica (Jubaea chilensis, Aiphanes eggersii) y de los Andes (Parajubaea spp.).
En LEP-C se han encontrado frutos y semillas de plantas silvestres comestibles C3, como peumo (Cryptocaria alba) y coco de palma chilena (Jubaea chilensis), una variada gama de moluscos, peces principalmente de orilla y de pozas intermareales, guanacos, aves y fauna de laguna como el coipo y la rana (Falabella y Planella 1991).
Se trata de las agrupaciones esclerofilas de Quillaja y Lithrea formando bosquetes dispersos y de Jubaea y Puya, conformando comunidades abiertas y preferentemente en exposicion a la solana.
The garden includes 19 Chilean wine palms (Jubaea Mensis), for instance, whose sugary sap has been used to make wine (this is the largest public collection of the tree, which was nearly clear-cut to extinction, in Northern California).
Jubaea chilensis is found in valleys and slopes of Andean foothills at low elevation in seasonally dry regions (Henderson et al., 1995).