Jubayl


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus.

Jubayl

 

(also Jebeil), a town in Lebanon, on the Mediterranean coast in the mukhafaz (province) of Mount Lebanon. Population, about 3,000. Jubayl has a railroad station and a brewery.

In ancient times, it was known by the Greek name Byblos (in Akkadian, Gubla; in Hebrew, Gebal). From the third to the second millennium B.C., Jubayl was the most important commercial and trading center of Phoenicia. It had lively trade relations with Egypt, exporting timber in exchange for papyrus, linen, and other goods. At the end of the second millennium B.C., with the rise in Phoenicia of Tyre and Sidon, Jubayl lost its position of leadership. Subsequently, Assyria and Babylonia frequently conquered the town. During the rule of the Achaemenids and during the Hellenistic-Roman period, it experienced an upsurge, coining its own money (from the fifth century B.C.) and achieving self-government. In the seventh century A.D. it was conquered by the Arabs.

Systematic excavations in Jubayl have been conducted since 1921. The remains of buildings from the Phoenician period have been found (the temples of the goddess Baalat and the god Resheph), as well as buildings of the Roman period (a temple, basilica, nymphaeum, and theater). Other buildings found in Jubayl include the ruins of medieval stone fortress walls, a castle (12th to 13th century), the Church of St. John the Baptist (12th century; western facade, 20th century), and a baptistry (13th century). A new center of the town is being built according to the design of the Lebanese architect A. Edde.

REFERENCES

Dunand, M. Fouilles de Byblos, vols. 1-2. Paris, 1937-58.
Klengel, M. Geschichte Syriens im 2 Jahrtausend von unserer Zeit, part 2. Berlin, 1969.
References in periodicals archive ?
(40.) On 16 February 1991 there was a Scud missile impact in the immediate vicinity of an ammunition-laden pier at Al Jubayl. Importantly, a postwar evaluation observes that "initially, this event received a considerable amount of attention.
does it not indicate the Shia presence to the east of Jubayl just mentioned; it
The committee also looked into whether a chemical weapons attack in the Port of Jubayl could have made some veterans sick, as the Birmingham News had suggested.
Top priority went to corralling the oil in booms and cleaning up shoreline areas around key facilities, such as Saudi Arabia's Jubayl desalination plant -- the world's largest.
JUBAYL, Lebanon, Oct 19 (KUNA) -- Female economists in the Arab world should be given further support, Chair of the Arab Businesswomen Council (ABC) Sheikha Hessa Saad Al-Abdullah Al-Sabah said on Wednesday.
During the buildup of Operation Desert Shield, the Saudi Arabian ports of Ad Dammam and Al Jubayl were congested with tens of thousands of military and commercially leased containers.
among place names, Arabic jubayl [diminutive form], "Byblos," vs.
Only the rural districts of Tyre, Bint Jubayl and Nabatiya were heavily Muslim (Shia), though even here there were Christian settlements.