The charge of "Judaizer
" would be leveled at any Messianic Jew who was too visible, but Messianic ritual was tolerable in small doses.
In 1725, Rodrigo Alvares Corcho presented himself before the Inquisition to confess his alleged "guilt of Judaism." Then, he accused Seixas, who was no longer in Lisbon, of being a Judaizer
. (61) Indeed, neither Seixas nor his family appears to have been mentioned in the Rol de Confessados from the parish of Santa Justa in 1725.
Similarly, Gregory elsewhere exhorts, "Therefore, either let those who declare that he is created confess that he is not God, so that they might appear as Judaizers
, or, if they confess that the created one is God, let them not deny being idolaters" (Gregory of Nyssa, Eun.
Fourthly, his proposal of an alternative reading based on the Hebrew original and the Jewish commentaries, as this commentary explicitly does, made him prey to anti-Semitic hostilities on the part of the Inquisition as a potential "judaizer
." His accusers also stated: "Communiter et ordinarie explicantur sanctae scripturae secundum explicationem rabbinorum, rejectis vel neglectis sanctorum explicationibus" ("The Holy Scriptures should usually and normally be explained according to the rabbinic explanations, whereas those of the Holy Writers should either be rejected or skipped" -- Proposition 3 [Alcala 1991: 3]).
While the brief references to Judaizers
oversimplify a complex issue, the examination of Chrysostom's audience highlights well its significant diversity.
On the one hand there are the "Judaizers
" who want to lead the Philippians down a road of legalism.
That city witnessed its initial auto de fe (act of faith) in 1482, when sentences were announced regarding the fates of persons accused of being crypto-Jews or Judaizers
, that is, secret practitioners of so-called Jewish rites.
Nehemia Judge, a Baptist elder and Connecticut Republican, accused rabbis of creating a "Jewish covenant" together with "Royalists, aristocrats and high-toned Federalists." He branded the rabbis "Judaizers
" and "leaders for a long time in the Jewish church" who conspired to do the devil's work.
They treat a variety of sources under the headings: Jewish Christians and gentile Judaizers
; Jewish reactions to Christianity; Gnostics and Marcionites; and patterns of Christian worship, with a section on Melito's Paschal homily.
According to Hamilton, the Inquisition, which had been established to deal with Judaizers
, did not have the vocabulary to describe such diverse innovations in sixteenth-century spirituality as Erasmianism, Lutheranism, or even the works of Ignatius Loyola.
were not the majority of its caseload, but the Inquisition was tougher on Judaizing than on any other class of heresy.
Rummel shows the remarkable degree of dissent in sixteenth-century society, which led contemporary writers to portray "the controversy as a battle between orthodox Christians and Judaizers
, between Catholics and reformers, or between representatives of scholasticism and champions of humanism" (vii).