English Walnut

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Related to Juglans regia: Persian walnut, English walnut, walnut tree

English Walnut

 

(Juglans regia), a tree of the family Juglandaceae. It attains a height of 20 to 30 m and has a trunk diameter of up to 1.5 m. The crown is thick and broadly rounded. The leaves are large (20–40 cm long), imparipin-nately compound, deciduous, and fragrant (from the volatile oil they contain). The flowers are monoecious; the male flowers grow in long catkins (when in blossom) and the female flowers singly or in clusters of two or three and more at the ends of short annual shoots. The fruit is a round or somewhat elongated drupe (nut). The outer pericarp is fleshy and green, while the inner one (shell) is woody with fleshy seeds (the so-called kernel). The English walnut grows well in moist, sunny places. It grows best in moderately damp carbonate loams with a low and constant groundwater level. The root system is strong and penetrates deep into the soil. The tree blooms in April and May, and the fruit ripens in September and October. Grafted trees begin to bear fruit in the eighth to tenth year and continue to bear fruit for up to 150–200 years. The nut yield from one tree (at the age of 30–50 years) is from 65 to 100 kg (sometimes up to 250 kg).

The English walnut grows naturally in Asia Minor, the Balkan Peninsula, Iran, and China, and it is cultivated in the United States, southwestern Europe, and the USSR. In Transcaucasia it is rarely found in the wild state, but it is widely cultivated and grows wild in many places. In the southern part of European USSR it is grown in gardens. Many varieties of English walnut are found among wild and formerly cultivated thickets and in cultivated plantings. Local varieties include the Bulgarian. Hassar, Ideal, Kazakhstan, Motherland. Thin-shelled, and Uzbek Earlymaturing.

The kernel of the English walnut contains 45 to 77 percent fat. 8 to 21 percent protein, vitamin B, and provitamin A. Immature nuts are rich in vitamin C and they are used for making preserves. The ripe kernels are used as food in their fresh form, as well as for culinary and confectionery purposes. The nuts are used to obtain oil (used in food and for making varnishes, high-quality soap, typographic inks, and india ink), and the wood is prized in carpentry, lathe work. and construction. Of particular value are the excrescences on the trunks, the so-called burrs, from which the finest veneers are made. The leaves, bark, and green husks yield tannins and a brown dye. The leaves and husk are used in medicine and perfume. The tree is nectar-bearing. It is used as the main and accompanying forest variety in field-protection strips, for strengthening the banks of ravines and gorges, and in ornamental horticulture.

The English walnut reproduces by means of seeds, which are stratified before sowing for a period of 1½ to two months (thin-shelled) or three to 1½ months (thick-shelled). In the majority of cases the seedlings do not preserve the qualities of the maternal variety, and for this reason they are grafted, more often budded, and sometimes propagated by means of cuttings.

REFERENCES

Krotkevich, P. G. Kul’tura orekhoplodnykh. Kiev. 1954.
Ozol. A. M., and E. I. Khor’kov. Grelskii orekh, ego inlroduktsiia i akklimalizatsiia.Riga. 1958.
Tuichiev. M. T. Grelskii orekh ν Srednei Azii. Tashkent. 1959.

V. A. KOLESNIKOV

References in periodicals archive ?
Juglans regia is well-known plantation in Azad Jammu and Kashmir and different factors like various geological properties, roughness and interspecific cross fertilization incorporate hereditary inconstancy in its germplasm, wild variety of walnut at elevation range from 1550 m to 3000 m (Khan et al., 2010).
Treatment groups (n=14): Received STZ and then orally administered 200-mg/kg/day Juglans regia L.
Fernanda Bahia, "Walnut (Juglans regia) leaf extracts are strong scavengers of pro-oxidant reactive species," Food Chemistry, vol.
Flowers Gastro-intestinal [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench] (Malvaceae, MARE 15353) (a) Juglans regia L.
Morphological variation among Persian walnut (Juglans regia) genotypes from central Iran.
Shooshtari, "Antibacterial effect of Juglans regia bark against oral pathologic bacteria," International Journal of Dentistry, vol.
Queremos senalar tambien la importancia de los diferentes taxones de rosaceas--Rosaceae--que aparecen junto a Juglans regia en el registro antracologico de Juslibol.
Walnut extract (Juglans regia L.) and its component ellagic acid exhibit anti-inflammatory activity in human aorta endothelial cells and osteoblastic activity in the cell line KS483.
Bud structure in relation to shoot morphology and position on the vegetative annual shoots of Juglans regia L.
The lipids found in samples of nuts Juglans regia and Carya illinoensis were in 68.03 and 65.73% when extracted by Soxhlet, while in 59.85 and 56.44 when extracted by pressing, respectively.
In the gunstock world, we generally refer to the common walnut, Juglans regia, as English walnut.
Standards and microwave assisted water extracts from Achillea milleffolium (herb), Althaea officinalis (roots), Equisetum arvense (herb), Juglans regia (leaves), Matricaria chamomella (flowers) and Taraxacum officinale (herb) were the samples used for this study.