Julian calendar


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Related to Julian calendar: Gregorian calendar, Julian date

Julian calendar

the calendar introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 bc, identical to the present calendar in all but two aspects: the beginning of the year was not fixed on Jan. 1 and leap years occurred every fourth year and in every centenary year

Julian calendar

(joo -lee-ăn) The calendar that was established in 46 bc in the Roman Empire by Julius Caesar, with Sosigenes of Alexandria as his chief advisor. It reached its final form in about 8 ad under Augustus and was in general use in the West up to 1582, when the Gregorian calendar was instituted. Each year contained 12 months and there was an average of 365.25 days per year: three years of 365 days were followed by a leap year of 366 days. (Leap years were not correctly inserted until 8 ad.) Since the average length of the year was about 11 minutes 15 seconds longer than the 365.2422 days of the tropical year, a discrepancy arose between the calendar year and the seasons, with an extra day ‘appearing’ about every 128 years.

Julian Calendar

 

(also Old Style), the calendar introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 B.C. The calendar fixed the length of the year as 365¼ days. (The actual length of the tropical year is 365 days, 5 hours, 48 min, and 46 sec.) This figure is obtained by inserting an additional day every four years—February 29 in the modern calendar. With the Julian calendar, the leap years are those that are evenly divisible by four, for example, 1900, 1904, 1972, and 1976. The difference between the New Style (Gregorian calendar) and Old Style amounted to 11 days in the 18th century and 12 days in the 19th century. In the 20th century, the difference amounts to 13 days. The shift from one style to the other has no effect on the day of the week.


Julian Calendar

 

(Old Style), a system of chronology introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 B.C. In the Julian calendar, every year that is divisible by 4, for example, 1900, 1976, and 1980, is considered a leap year; thus, the average length of a year is 365.25 days, which is 0.0078 day longer than the tropical year.

Since the error in the Julian calendar constitutes about three days every 400 years, it was replaced by the Gregorian calendar (New Style) beginning in 1582; in the USSR the Gregorian calendar was introduced February 14 (February 1 Old Style), 1918. The difference between the New and Old styles was 11 days in the 18th century and 12 days in the 19th century; in the 20th century it is 13 days. In the event of a change from one style to another, the day of the week does not change; thus, both May 1, 1979, New Style and Apr. 18, 1979, Old Style fall on Tuesday.

Julian calendar

[′jül·yən ′kal·ən·dər]
(astronomy)
A calendar (replaced by the Gregorian calendar) in which the year was 365.25 days, with the fraction allowing for an extra day every fourth year (leap year); there were 12 months, each 30 or 31 days except for February which had 28 days or in leap year 29.
References in periodicals archive ?
established what has come to be known as the Julian Calendar.
Terminologically speaking, the ecclesiastical institution that remained constant in following the Julian Calendar was forced to use differentiating elements in the official papers, although it did not cause change.
It is estimated that some 30,000 Russian Orthodox churches around the world will mark Christmas on January 7 as well as other churches that still use the Julian calendar.
Since the late 16th century, the difference between the longer Julian calendar and the shorter Gregorian calendar (the latter now the world's most widely accepted civil calendar) has grown by three days.
The Orthodox faith uses the old Julian calendar in which Christmas currently falls 13 days after its more widespread Gregorian calendar counterpart on December 25.
The Julian calendar was to be retained but revised, bringing it closer to the Gregorian.
A series of events begin to confirm his fears when he joins a terrorist organization, and on September 11th, the first day of the new year on the Julian calendar, the nightmare appears to become a reality.
Following the Julian Calendar, Greek and Eastern Orthodox Christians celebrate Christmas in January.
31-35--the Julian calendar date for the 15th of the month
In 1752, however, England switched from the Julian calendar to the Gregorian one; eleven days were lost, and January 1 became the new start of the year.
Our present civil calendar is known as the Gregorian calendar, (2) or sometimes as the "Gregorian reform of the Julian calendar.