Julius II

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Julius II,

1443–1513, pope (1503–13), an Italian named Giuliano della Rovere, b. Savona; successor of Pius III. His uncle Sixtus IV gave him many offices and created him cardinal. Innocent VIII, successor to Sixtus IV, was entirely under Cardinal della Rovere's influence, and it was in reaction to the cardinal's power that the rest of the cardinals elected (1492) his bitter enemy, Rodrigo Borgia, as Pope Alexander VIAlexander VI,
1431?–1503, pope (1492–1503), a Spaniard (b. Játiva) named Rodrigo de Borja or, in Italian, Rodrigo Borgia; successor of Innocent VIII. He took Borja as his surname from his mother's brother Alfonso, who was Pope Calixtus III.
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. Giuliano went into voluntary exile and had little to do with ecclesiastical affairs until Alexander's death (1503). Pius III succeeded for less than a month, and Giuliano succeeded him. Pope Julius showed himself first of all a warrior, and he ably completed the work, begun by his enemy Cesare Borgia, of restoring the Papal States to the church. Having joined the League of Cambrai, he was at war with Venice until 1509 and won back Ravenna, Rimini, and Faenza. He then formed (1510) the anti-French Holy LeagueHoly League,
in Italian history, alliance formed (1510–11) by Pope Julius II during the Italian Wars for the purpose of expelling Louis XII of France from Italy, thereby consolidating papal power.
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. The resultant struggle was a draw (see Italian WarsItalian Wars,
1494–1559, series of regional wars brought on by the efforts of the great European powers to control the small independent states of Italy. Renaissance Italy was split into numerous rival states, most of which sought foreign alliances to increase their
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). In 1512 he assembled the Fifth Lateran CouncilLateran Council, Fifth,
1512–17, 18th ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church, convened by Pope Julius II and continued by his successor Leo X. Julius called the council to counter an attempt begun (1510) by Louis XII of France to revive the conciliar theory (i.e.
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, which condemned the Gallicanism of the church in France and abolished simony in the college of cardinals. Julius was a great patron of art, and Raphael (who painted his portrait), Michelangelo, and Bramante enjoyed his favor. He laid the cornerstone of St. Peter's. Worldly as Julius was, he was one of the first to suppress nepotism and to try, albeit feebly, to break the hold of corruption on Rome. He was succeeded by Leo X.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Julius II


(secular name, Giuliano della Rovere). Born Dec. 5, 1443, in Albissola; died Feb. 21, 1513, in Rome. Pope from 1503.

Julius sought to strengthen papal authority and increase the territory of the Papal States. To further these ends, he intervened in the Italian Wars of 1494–1559. In 1508 he joined the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai; he won from Venice the return of the captured cities of Romagna. In 1511 he became the head of the anti-French Holy League. He increased the activity of the Inquisition and helped broaden the trade in indulgences.

A patron of the arts, Julius invited D. Bramante, Michelangelo, Raphael, and other architects, sculptors, and painters to Rome.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Julius II

original name Guiliano della Rovere. 1443--1513, pope (1503--13). He completed the restoration of the Papal States to the Church, began the building of St Peter's, Rome (1506), and patronized Michelangelo, Raphael, and Bramante
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Pope Julius II summoned Renaissance artists Raphael and Michelangelo to Rome, asking them, respectively, to fresco the papal apartments and the Sistine Chapel.
The novel tells the story of the renowned Florentine artist arriving at the Ottoman capital to design the epic bridge, leaving the commission of Julius II unfinished, his exploration of the beauty and splendor of Ottoman architecture, his scorn of Leonardo, his bickering over jealous friends back home, his cultural shock at the infidel lifestyle in Constantinople, his warm relationship with Turkish poet Meshihi, his mysterious flirtation with a beautiful female singer, his secretive letters to his brother in Florence and Sangallo in Rome, his struggles to create what he visualized to be his great architectural masterwork, and his immersion in cloak-and-dagger palace intrigues.
1512 - Pope Julius II opens 5th Council of Lateranen (18th ecumenical council) in Rome
It revolves around iconic artist Michelangelo's troubles with Pope Julius II while painting "Sistine Chapel." Released in 1965, the film stars Charlton Heston, Rex Harrison and Diane Cilento.
The show is as close as we can now get to seeing the massive sculptural tomb of the Medici Pope Julius II in its many aborted iterations; it was this"urgent" commission (years before Julius' death) that pulled Michelangelo off the battle fresco.
How different the history of Western art would be without Julius II, who commissioned Raphael's Stanza della Segnatura frescos and Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel ceiling between orchestrating military campaigns against Venice and France.
Pope Julius II, one of the great patrons of art during the Italian Renaissance, commissioned him to design his monumental tomb, which was to include 40 statues.
In fact, Michelangelo was asked by Pope Julius II to "paint our ceiling for the greater glory of God and as an inspiration and lesson to his people".
Cummings's chapter presents lengthy accounts of classically inspired and bawdy performances in Rome (largely held during carnivale 1518-21, under Leo X) to consider the kind of behaviour that so offended Luther on his visit to Rome (1510-11, under Julius II) that it spurred him toward reformation.
Such was the case during Alfonso d'Este's war with Pope Julius II, when Isabella openly supported the Duke of Ferrara, her brother, while Francesco acted as a spy for papal forces (chapters 2 and 6).
Peter's Basilica, Julius II commissioned a horoscope to determine the most auspicious time for laying the stone; it was installed April 18,1506, at 10 a.m.
Peter's Basilica was constructed during the reign of Pope Julius II. Those were years fraught with corruption, greed, and nepotism in the Church.