France had to wait until the July Monarchy
in 1830 to conduct the genuine self-criticism it needed.
Grandville in an elaborate pas de deux of collaboration and rivalry during the years of the July Monarchy
Her chapters on female critics and painters in mid-nineteenth-century France question idees recues regarding women's access to public culture, stressing the prominence of female exhibitors in the Salon (though her figures are inconsistent: "at least one third of the artists at the Salon were women" during the July Monarchy
, a figure that "kept growing throughout the nineteenth century until, at its end, women represented about 22% of the total" ).
By the early July Monarchy
, Paul de Kock's name had been a fixture of the Parisian literary scene for over a decade, thanks to his inexhaustible production of vaudevilles, novels, songs and occasional writings on Paris.
Contemplating the expansion of the bourgeoisie under Louis Philippe's July Monarchy
(1830-48), Honore de Balzac declared that "fashion is the expression of society ...
Historians of antisemitism in France have looked upon the Restoration (1814-30) and July Monarchy
(1830-48) as comprising a tranquil period, particularly when compared with the tumultuous and bitter fin-de-siecle Dreyfus Affair, the rise of the Action Francaise and French fascism, the restrictive policies of the Vichy regime, and the Nazi Holocaust.
Doyle goes on to trace the ci-devants through the Terror, the Directory, the Napoleonic period, the Restoration, the July Monarchy
, the Second Empire on into successive Republics.
Grandville and the Missouri album; the life of an opposition caricaturist and romantic book illustrator in Paris under the July monarchy
In chapters 4-6, Harison examines this evolving contentious relationship during the July Monarchy
(1830-1848), following the 1848 Revolution, and in the aftermath of the Paris Commune of 1871.
David Lawday echoes earlier biographers in tracing the twists and turns of Talleyrand's life, which saw him adapt and survive under successive regimes from the ancien regime to the July Monarchy
. Lawday also retells the well-known story of Talleyrand's complicated private life, whose highlights included a virtual menage a trois with the American ambassador Gouverneur Morris during the early 1790s, an inexplicable marriage to a socially inept beauty after he left the Church, and, in his later years, a happy household including both the duchess of Kurland and her daughter.
During 1832-33, his series of portraits, based upon clay figurines modelled by himself, gave readers of Le Charivari and La Caricature a rogues' gallery of the July Monarchy
. Typically, he exaggerated the sharp, cruel features of Jean Charles Persil, the chief prosecutor, while emphasizing the long nose of d'Argout, the Minister of Arts and Public Works.