June Days

June Days,

in French history, name usually given to the insurrection of workers in June, 1848. The working classes had played an important role in the February RevolutionFebruary Revolution,
1848, French revolution that overthrew the monarchy of Louis Philippe and established the Second Republic. General dissatisfaction resulted partly from the king's increasingly reactionary policy, carried out after 1840 by François Guizot, and partly
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 of 1848, but their hopes for economic and social reform were disappointed. Their increasing unrest was due to continued economic crisis and rising unemployment and to the inadequacy of the national workshops, which, although proposed by Louis BlancBlanc, Louis
, 1811–82, French socialist politician and journalist and historian. In his noted Organisation du travail (1840, tr. Organization of Work,
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, were never organized as he planned them. Instead of providing work, the workshops became a system of registering the unemployed for a meager dole. When a decree of June 21 abolished the workshops and required unemployed provincials to return to the provinces, the workers revolted to save their "democratic and social republic." There were four days (June 23–26) of violent fighting in the barricaded streets of Paris. General CavaignacCavaignac, Louis Eugène
, 1802–57, French general. He participated in the French conquest of Algeria and was promoted to general in 1844. After the outbreak of the February Revolution in 1848, he became governor-general of Algeria.
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 was given dictatorial powers and used harsh measures to suppress the insurrection. There were summary executions and more than 15,000 deportations to Algeria. The June Days further alienated the lower classes from the revolution.

Bibliography

See K. Marx, The Class Struggle in France (1850, repr. 1967); M. Agulhon, The Republican Experiment 1848–1852 (1983)

References in classic literature ?
In these long June days the milkmaids, and, indeed, most of the household, went to bed at sunset or sooner, the morning work before milking being so early and heavy at a time of full pairs.
But on this June day in the year of our Lord 1243, Henry so forgot himself as to very unjustly accuse De Montfort of treason in the presence of a number of the King's gentlemen.
But now, at last, on a flaming June day, she found herself happy; her tedious wait was ended; her year-worn advertisement had been answered; and not by a village applicant, no, no
That was exactly present to me--by which I mean the face was-- when, on the first of these occasions, at the end of a long June day, I stopped short on emerging from one of the plantations and coming into view of the house.
The girl wiped her hands, crossed her feet on the little island of carpet where she was stranded in a sea of soap-suds, and then, sure enough, out of her slender throat came the swallow's twitter, the robin's whistle, the blue-jay's call, the thrush's song, the wood-dove's coo, and many another familiar note, all ending as before with the musical ecstacy of a bobolink singing and swinging among the meadow grass on a bright June day.
It turned out to be one of those rich and rare fall days which is just a June day toned down to a degree where it is heaven to be out of doors.
ON the morning of a fine June day my first bonny little nursling, and the last of the ancient Earnshaw stock, was born.
It reminded me of an early June day in the Maine Woods.
By this and by that, my head hummeth like to a hive of bees on a hot June day.
a man might ride for a long June day and never set eyes upon such maidens.
Moreover, the exhibition will feature a grand majlis, henna majlis, health clinic and free vision tests among other engaging activities for people looking for some indoor fun and frolic during the hot June days.
Sunny June days turn dark as a desperate search ensues.