Jung CarlGustav

Jung CarlGustav

(1875-1961) psychologist. Born in Switzerland and medically trained, he became a psychiatrist and admirer of FREUD. However, in The Psychology of the Unconscious (1912), his personal development away from PSYCHOANALYSIS was evident and he distanced himself from Freud, his subsequent work being known as Analytic Psychology. He travelled widely observing African cultures and the Indians of the Americas and of the East, and making various European visits.

Jung's extensive knowledge of the religions, mythology, philosophy and symbolism of many cultures became incorporated into his theory of the collective unconscious. To him, the deepest levels of the UNCONSCIOUS contain inherited universal archetypes – ideas or symbols common to all cultures, which are made manifest in dreams, myths and stories. Jungian psychology tends towards the mystical, which perhaps explains its popularity in recent years. His therapeutic method involved assisting patients to contact the healing powers within themselves, in the collective unconscious.

His more specific influence on psychology and analysis includes his introduction of the terms INTROVERSION and EXTRAVERSION to describe personality characteristics; the Word Association Test; and the notion of personality complexes which are comprised of associated emotions or ideas and are revealed through word association or dream interpretation.

Collins Dictionary of Sociology, 3rd ed. © HarperCollins Publishers 2000