Jura

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Jura

(zhürä`), department (1990 pop. 249,600), E France, in Franche-ComtéFranche-Comté
or Free County of Burgundy,
former province and former administrative region, E France. It is coextensive with Haute-Saône, Doubs, and Jura depts.
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, bordering on Switzerland. Lons-le-SaunierLons-le-Saunier
, town (1990 pop. 20,140), capital of Jura dept., E France, at the foot of the Jura Mts. A saltwater spa since Roman times, the town has food and textile industries and varied manufactures. Parts of its Romanesque church date from the 11th cent.
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 is the capital. The area is a major producer of Gruyère cheese and a center for the manufacture of plastics and pipes.

Jura

(jo͝or`ə, Fr. zhürä`, Ger. yo͞o`rä), canton (1993 pop. 68,300), 3,256 sq mi (840 sq km), NW Switzerland. In the Jura Mts., bordered by the Swiss cantons of Bern on the south and Solothurn in the east and by France in the north and west. Its capital is Delémont, and its chief rivers are the Doubs and Birs. Agricultural products, horses, and cattle are the major economic concerns. The traditional watchmaking industry has long been important in the Jura region; textiles and tobacco are also manufactured. The region that now comprises Jura had been part of Bern canton until dissension between Roman Catholics (largely French-speaking) and Protestants (largely German-speaking) led to requests for an independent canton of Jura. The vote came in 1978, and the following year Jura became Switzerland's 23d canton. The region was a prince bishopric of the Holy Roman Empire from 999 until the Congress of Vienna in 1815. It had had close ties to the Swiss Confederation since the Treaty of Westphalia (1648) and in 1815 it was made part of Bern canton.

Jura

(jo͝or`ə, Fr. zhürä`, Ger. yo͞o`rä), mountain range, part of the Alpine system, E France and NW Switzerland, occupying parts of the French region of Franche-Comté and the Swiss cantons of Vaud, Neuchâtel, Bern, Solothurn, and Basel. It extends in narrow, parallel ridges c.160 mi (260 km) from the Rhine River at Basel to the Rhône River SW of Geneva; Crêt de la Neige (5,652 ft/1,723 m), in France, is the highest peak. The Jura's rounded crests and summits are covered with dense pine forests and good pasture lands. The region is drained by the Doubs, the Ain, the Loué, and smaller streams. Major cities include La Chaux-de-Fonds, Neuchâtel, and Biel, Switzerland, and Besançon, France. Hydroelectric plants in the Jura supply power to pulp and paper, textile, and woodworking industries. Important watch industries, particularly in the Swiss towns of Le Locle, La Chaux-de-Fonds, and Grenchen, are also there. Export products from the French Jura include brierwood (for pipes), plastics, and cheese. The Jura Mts. are a popular year-round resort region. Composed of sandstone and limestone and rich in fossils, the Jura gives its name to the Jurassic periodJurassic period
[from the Jura Mts.], second period of the Mesozoic era of geologic time, lasting from 213 to 144 million years ago. At the start of the Jurassic most of the continents were joined together until the Atlantic began to form and the Americas split off from Africa.
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. The mountains N of Lake Constance in SW Germany are called the Swabian Jura.

Jura,

island, Great Britain: see Hebrides, theHebrides, the
, Western Isles,
or Western Islands,
group of more than 50 islands, W and NW Scotland. Less than a fifth of the islands are inhabited. The Outer Hebrides
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.

Jura

 

a department in eastern France, in the Jura Mountains. Area, 5,000 sq km. Population, 239,000 (1975). The capital is Lons-le-Saunier.

In 1968, industry in Jura employed 35 percent of the economically active population, and agriculture 20 percent. Industry includes metallurgy in Champagnole; the production of clocks, watches, and eyeglasses in Morbier and Morez; the manufacture of electrical engineering products in St. Claude; and the production of plastic goods in Tavaux, Lons-le-Saunier, and St. Claude. Agriculture in Jura includes livestock raising and cheesemaking.


Jura

 

mountains in Switzerland and France. The Jura extend for 250 km between the Savoy Alps and the Black Forest and reach an elevation of 1,718 m at Crêt de la Neige. They consist of parallel ranges composed mostly of Jurassic limestones and marls. In the southeast, toward the Swiss Plateau, the Jura end precipitously, falling as much as 1,000 m in elevation; in the northwest, where plateau-like karstic surfaces are common (the Jura Plateau), elevations decrease in stages. Beech forests are found on the slopes; at higher elevations, up to 1,300–1,400 m, spruce and fir forests are encountered. Meadows occur on the summits.


Jūra

 

a river in the Lithuanian SSR, a right tributary of the Neman River. The Jūra is 177 km long and drains an area of 3,990 sq km. It rises in the Žemaitija Uplands; fed by various sources, it receives 48 percent of its water from rainfall. High water occurs from late February to early May; the period of low water is interrupted by freshets, the largest of which occur in December. The mean flow rate 40 km from the mouth is 20.1 cu m per sec. The river freezes over between November and February, and the ice breaks up between late February and mid-May. The city of Tauragé is located on the lower course of the Jūra.

Jura

[′ju̇r·ə]
(geology)

Jura

1. a department of E France, in Franche-Comt? region. Capital: Lons-le-Saunier. Pop.: 253 309 (2003 est.)). Area: 5055 sq. km (1971 sq. miles)
2. a canton of Switzerland, bordering the French frontier: formed in 1979 from part of Bern. Capital: Del?mont. Pop.: 69 200 (2002 est.). Area: 838 sq. km (323 sq. miles)
3. an island off the W coast of Scotland, in the Inner Hebrides, separated from the mainland by the Sound of Jura. Pop.: 200 (2004 est.). Area: 381 sq. km (147 sq.miles)
4. a mountain range in W central Europe, between the Rivers Rhine and Rh?ne: mostly in E France, extending into W Switzerland
5. a range of mountains in the NE quadrant of the moon lying on the N border of the Mare Imbrium