Jurchen

Jurchen

 

the language of the Jurchens. Jurchen, which belongs to the Manchurian branch of the Manchu-Tungus languages, is attested in texts written in the Jurchen “large script” and “small script.” The large script was created in 1119, evidently by adapting the Khitan writing system to the Jurchen language; it remains undeciphered. The small script was created in 1138 from graphic elements in the Chinese writing system; it contains syllabic signs and ideograms. Some of the texts in the small script are bilingual, with a translation and transcription in Chinese, which made it possible to decipher the small script and obtain an idea of Jurchen. Jurchen is similar to Manchu, which derives from it, in lexicon, morphemes, and structure. (SeeMANCHU-TUNGUS LANGUAGES.)

REFERENCES

Sravnitel’nyi slovar’ tunguso-man’chzhurskikh iazykov, vol. 1. Leningrad, 1975.
Grube, W. Die Sprache und Schrift der Jučen. Leipzig, 1896.
Yamaji, H. A Jučen-Japanese-English Glossary. Tokyo, 1956.
References in periodicals archive ?
The negotiator argued the Jurchen in the northern region of the Korean peninsula was standing in its way to forge relations with Liao.
Encouraged by Song military incompetence in the field against the Liao, the small Jurchen turned on their ally, quickly taking the capital and forcing the Song court to flee to the south.
After the fall of the original capital Kaifeng [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (Henan) to the Jurchen invaders in 1126, a new provisional capital, denoted by the term Xingzai [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] was established in Hangzhou [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (Zhejiang)--and not Peking/Beijing as Wong and Hall say in their translations.
It is associated with invasions and the rise of regimes alien to China - the Khitan Liao, the Hsi Hsia, and the Jurchen Chin from the 9th century.
His aesthetic achievements as a poet, calligrapher, and painter, as well as his pathetic end as a prisoner of the conquering Jurchen tribesmen of Manchuria, already ensure him a place in all surveys of Chinese art and history.
More importantly, because of the pressure on the Southern Song from the Jurchen dynasty in the north and the resultant political instability, ci poets, guided and motivated by pain and sorrow at an ailing body politic, used every method at their disposal to encapsulate their feelings in their song lyrics, employing the genre to give cathartic expression to emotions that were difficult to articulate yet had to be poured out in some form or other.
Los Jurchen, o como los manchues entraron a la escena mundial
Bajo los Qitan, sus sujetos jurchen [pueblo tungus originario de Siberia oriental] proveian, como parte del tributo a la corte de Liao [dinastia mongol que reino en China de 907 a 1125], expertos que imitaban el bramido del venado con un cuerno".
During the course of the Jurchen invasion, the Song Dynasty was reconstituted in the south.
At the time of turmoil in China and Central Asia, Yeh-lti was respected as one who chose not to submit to the Jurchen conquerors (Jin Dynasty 1115-1234) (Ji 20-35).
In 1115, a Jurchen [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], non-Sinitic etymology] (Manchu-Tungus) power founded (N3) the Jin/Kim [91D1 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (jin/kim), a newly made ethnonym that means "gold [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]" (1008: #9185) in Sui-Tang-Song Chinese] Empire, or officially the Da-Jin/Kim [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (da-jin/dai-kim), 'great gold'] Empire in far north-east China that was a territory of the Khitan Liao Empire.
The two conquest dynasties of this time were the Liao and Jin, established by the Kitan and Jurchen tribes respectively, both of whom were predominantly pastoralist and militaristic.