This indeed can be further linked to the more successful efforts by the Khitan and Jurchen
rulers of the Liao [phrase omitted] and Jin [phrase omitted] dynasties, respectively, in creating the writing scripts for their "national languages," (20) and the even more impressive creation of the sophisticated Tangut script, all more or less based on the Chinese script.
(9) Specifically, he was born in the final decades of the Jin [phrase omitted] or Jurchen
, dynasty (1115-1234), which in 1126 had so spectacularly defeated the ethnically Chinese Song [phrase omitted] dynasty (960-1279), and taken control of north China.
troops invade and destroy the city, which collapses into a long-lasting economic decline.
The negotiator argued the Jurchen
in the northern region of the Korean peninsula was standing in its way to forge relations with Liao.
As economic and population declines deepened, the increasingly strained military suffered its first major military loss, giving up the northern half of the empire to the steppe Jurchen
, who had been invited into an alliance against a third kingdom, the Liao.
After the fall of the original capital Kaifeng [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (Henan) to the Jurchen
invaders in 1126, a new provisional capital, denoted by the term Xingzai [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] was established in Hangzhou [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (Zhejiang)--and not Peking/Beijing as Wong and Hall say in their translations.
It is associated with invasions and the rise of regimes alien to China - the Khitan Liao, the Hsi Hsia, and the Jurchen
Chin from the 9th century.
His aesthetic achievements as a poet, calligrapher, and painter, as well as his pathetic end as a prisoner of the conquering Jurchen
tribesmen of Manchuria, already ensure him a place in all surveys of Chinese art and history.
During the course of the Jurchen
invasion, the Song Dynasty was reconstituted in the south.
At the time of turmoil in China and Central Asia, Yeh-lti was respected as one who chose not to submit to the Jurchen
conquerors (Jin Dynasty 1115-1234) (Ji 20-35).