Jurchen

Jurchen

 

the language of the Jurchens. Jurchen, which belongs to the Manchurian branch of the Manchu-Tungus languages, is attested in texts written in the Jurchen “large script” and “small script.” The large script was created in 1119, evidently by adapting the Khitan writing system to the Jurchen language; it remains undeciphered. The small script was created in 1138 from graphic elements in the Chinese writing system; it contains syllabic signs and ideograms. Some of the texts in the small script are bilingual, with a translation and transcription in Chinese, which made it possible to decipher the small script and obtain an idea of Jurchen. Jurchen is similar to Manchu, which derives from it, in lexicon, morphemes, and structure. (SeeMANCHU-TUNGUS LANGUAGES.)

REFERENCES

Sravnitel’nyi slovar’ tunguso-man’chzhurskikh iazykov, vol. 1. Leningrad, 1975.
Grube, W. Die Sprache und Schrift der Jučen. Leipzig, 1896.
Yamaji, H. A Jučen-Japanese-English Glossary. Tokyo, 1956.
References in periodicals archive ?
This indeed can be further linked to the more successful efforts by the Khitan and Jurchen rulers of the Liao [phrase omitted] and Jin [phrase omitted] dynasties, respectively, in creating the writing scripts for their "national languages," (20) and the even more impressive creation of the sophisticated Tangut script, all more or less based on the Chinese script.
(9) Specifically, he was born in the final decades of the Jin [phrase omitted] or Jurchen, dynasty (1115-1234), which in 1126 had so spectacularly defeated the ethnically Chinese Song [phrase omitted] dynasty (960-1279), and taken control of north China.
The negotiator argued the Jurchen in the northern region of the Korean peninsula was standing in its way to forge relations with Liao.
As economic and population declines deepened, the increasingly strained military suffered its first major military loss, giving up the northern half of the empire to the steppe Jurchen, who had been invited into an alliance against a third kingdom, the Liao.
After the fall of the original capital Kaifeng [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (Henan) to the Jurchen invaders in 1126, a new provisional capital, denoted by the term Xingzai [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] was established in Hangzhou [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (Zhejiang)--and not Peking/Beijing as Wong and Hall say in their translations.
It is associated with invasions and the rise of regimes alien to China - the Khitan Liao, the Hsi Hsia, and the Jurchen Chin from the 9th century.
His aesthetic achievements as a poet, calligrapher, and painter, as well as his pathetic end as a prisoner of the conquering Jurchen tribesmen of Manchuria, already ensure him a place in all surveys of Chinese art and history.
During the course of the Jurchen invasion, the Song Dynasty was reconstituted in the south.
At the time of turmoil in China and Central Asia, Yeh-lti was respected as one who chose not to submit to the Jurchen conquerors (Jin Dynasty 1115-1234) (Ji 20-35).