The negotiator argued the Jurchen
in the northern region of the Korean peninsula was standing in its way to forge relations with Liao.
Encouraged by Song military incompetence in the field against the Liao, the small Jurchen
turned on their ally, quickly taking the capital and forcing the Song court to flee to the south.
After the fall of the original capital Kaifeng [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (Henan) to the Jurchen
invaders in 1126, a new provisional capital, denoted by the term Xingzai [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] was established in Hangzhou [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (Zhejiang)--and not Peking/Beijing as Wong and Hall say in their translations.
It is associated with invasions and the rise of regimes alien to China - the Khitan Liao, the Hsi Hsia, and the Jurchen
Chin from the 9th century.
His aesthetic achievements as a poet, calligrapher, and painter, as well as his pathetic end as a prisoner of the conquering Jurchen
tribesmen of Manchuria, already ensure him a place in all surveys of Chinese art and history.
More importantly, because of the pressure on the Southern Song from the Jurchen
dynasty in the north and the resultant political instability, ci poets, guided and motivated by pain and sorrow at an ailing body politic, used every method at their disposal to encapsulate their feelings in their song lyrics, employing the genre to give cathartic expression to emotions that were difficult to articulate yet had to be poured out in some form or other.
, o como los manchues entraron a la escena mundial
Bajo los Qitan, sus sujetos jurchen
[pueblo tungus originario de Siberia oriental] proveian, como parte del tributo a la corte de Liao [dinastia mongol que reino en China de 907 a 1125], expertos que imitaban el bramido del venado con un cuerno".
During the course of the Jurchen
invasion, the Song Dynasty was reconstituted in the south.
At the time of turmoil in China and Central Asia, Yeh-lti was respected as one who chose not to submit to the Jurchen
conquerors (Jin Dynasty 1115-1234) (Ji 20-35).
In 1115, a Jurchen
[[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], non-Sinitic etymology] (Manchu-Tungus) power founded (N3) the Jin/Kim [91D1 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (jin/kim), a newly made ethnonym that means "gold [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]" (1008: #9185) in Sui-Tang-Song Chinese] Empire, or officially the Da-Jin/Kim [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (da-jin/dai-kim), 'great gold'] Empire in far north-east China that was a territory of the Khitan Liao Empire.
The two conquest dynasties of this time were the Liao and Jin, established by the Kitan and Jurchen
tribes respectively, both of whom were predominantly pastoralist and militaristic.