Jurchens

(redirected from Jurchen Jin)

Jurchens

 

(also Juchen, Jürched), tribes of Tungus origin that from ancient times inhabited the eastern part of Northeast China (Manchuria) and the Primor’e.

Until the tenth century, the Jurchens were independent and maintained ties with China and Korea. In the tenth and 11th centuries they were dependent on the Khitans. In the early 12th century the various Jurchen tribes were united by Akuta, who in 1114 led an uprising against the Khitans that resulted in the formation of the independent Chin state (1115–1234), which was eventually destroyed by the Mongol conquerors. Under the Mongols, the Jurchens once again split up into several tribal groups and until the 16th century played a minor role in the history of Eastern Asia.

At the end of the 16th century a tribal elder named Nurhachi emerged from the Chienchou Jurchens, whose designation is derived from the area they inhabited. Between 1583 and 1625 he managed to unite the Chienchou tribes and several other tribes, which were subsequently known as the Manchus.

REFERENCE

Vorob’ev, M. V. Chzhurchzheni i gosudarstvo Tszin’ (X v.–1234): Istoricheskii ocherk. Moscow, 1975.
References in periodicals archive ?
Ningzong again increased burdens on the private sector, launched war against the Jurchen Jin, and built up the economic situation to one of hyperinflation.
In fact, such a situation existed under "alien" conquest dynasties such as the Kin= Liao, Jurchen Jin, Mongol Yuan--dynasties whose rulers defined themselves as "emperors" with universal sovereignty even when multiple competing "Sons of Heaven" coexisted--or in the Manchu Qing dynasty, whose official diplomatic discourse could accommodate (and lesser lords who ritually accepted) imperial suzerainty.
Over the course of warfare between the Chinese Song dynasty, the Jurchen Jin Dinasty, and the rising power of the Mongols, gunpowder weapons were used in siege and naval warfare and then gradually moved to the open battlefield.