1127-62), Xiaozong (1163-89), Guangzong (1190-94), and Ningzong (1195-1224), as well as an Imperial court and political system close to collapse under military pressure from the Jurchens
, and these combined left unmistakable traces in his song lyrics.
In historical East Asia, pastoral and nomadic polities (Xiongnu, Uighurs, Tibetans, Khitans, Jurchens
, Mongols, and Manchus, among others) had their distinct political structure and ways of governance.
The Chinese Song Empire planned with Din'ang and Jurchens
a military campaign against Liao.
37) What is more, in mainland Southeast Asia, China and South Asia alike, interventions by mobile warriors from beyond the frontier--Tais, Jurchens
, Mongols, Turkic peoples, Yadavas and Hoysalas--redrew the political map while in some cases accelerating commercial or agrarian expansion.
In the early twelfth century the Jurchens
, who first lived in the southern part of the area that became known later as Manchuria, began to pose a major threat to Song security.
This is one of the poems Fan wrote in 1170 when he was sent on a diplomatic mission to the court of the Jurchens
, a Tungusic nomadic tribe that had taken much of the northern part of the Song territories, and the bridge in the poem is the famous bridge in Bianliang, the old capital of the Northern Song, lost to the Jurchens
in 1126 and now under enemy occupation.
By the time of the second invasion, the Jurchens
(who had rechristened themselves as Manchus) had declared a new dynasty-the Qing--and had begun an expansion that would ultimately bring about the demise of the Ming.
In addition, the latter was a militarily strong neighbour of Song China which, having suffered countless defeats in battles with the Khitans, Jurchens
and Tanguts, agreed to send it an 'annual tribute of 50,000 tales of silver, 130,000 bolts of silk, and 10,000 catties of tea in exchange for peace' in 1044, (38) coincidentally the first year of King Anawrahta's reign.
Three centuries earlier these peoples had organized a powerful state, eventually conquering North China where they ruled for the better part of a century before being overcome by the Mongol armies of Cinggis Qavan in 1234; the Tungusic groups that created the confederation that we know as the Jin [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] dynasty (1115-1234) are known to history as the Jurchens
(Nuzhen [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] in Chinese).
Of the four major conqueror peoples examined, namely the Khitans, the Jurchens
, the Mongols, and the Manchus, only the Mongols had their home base on the steppe.
It was against this backdrop that the new Choson Korean state's foreign policy was to be built upon the Confucian principles of sadae with Ming China and kyorin ("neighborly relations") with Japan and the Jurchens
in the north.
These people were descendants of the Jurchens
who ruled the area of northern China during the Jin dynasty (1115-1234), and Manchu is a direct descendant of this earlier Jurchen