In historical East Asia, pastoral and nomadic polities (Xiongnu, Uighurs, Tibetans, Khitans, Jurchens, Mongols, and Manchus, among others) had their distinct political structure and ways of governance.
In 1116, the Jurchens conquered the Liao Eastern Capital and continued to grow stronger by military successes.
In the early twelfth century the Jurchens, who first lived in the southern part of the area that became known later as Manchuria, began to pose a major threat to Song security.
At the court of Gaozong, he advocated peace with the Jurchens in the north at whatever cost.
Three centuries earlier these peoples had organized a powerful state, eventually conquering North China where they ruled for the better part of a century before being overcome by the Mongol armies of Cinggis Qavan in 1234; the Tungusic groups that created the confederation that we know as the Jin [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] dynasty (1115-1234) are known to history as the Jurchens
(Nuzhen [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] in Chinese).
This is one of the poems Fan wrote in 1170 when he was sent on a diplomatic mission to the court of the Jurchens
, a Tungusic nomadic tribe that had taken much of the northern part of the Song territories, and the bridge in the poem is the famous bridge in Bianliang, the old capital of the Northern Song, lost to the Jurchens
in 1126 and now under enemy occupation.
By the time of the second invasion, the Jurchens
(who had rechristened themselves as Manchus) had declared a new dynasty-the Qing--and had begun an expansion that would ultimately bring about the demise of the Ming.
These people were descendants of the Jurchens
who ruled the area of northern China during the Jin dynasty (1115-1234), and Manchu is a direct descendant of this earlier Jurchen
It was against this backdrop that the new Choson Korean state's foreign policy was to be built upon the Confucian principles of sadae with Ming China and kyorin ("neighborly relations") with Japan and the Jurchens
in the north.
The existence of a significant corpus of Mongolian loan words used to translate these terms, combined with the fact that some of them occur in Jurchen
, suggests that among the northern border peoples there may have been a kind of tradition of Lunyu interpretation which began in the twelfth century with the reign of the Jurchens
, and possibly even as early as the tenth century with the Khitans.
could trade in the Korean capital only after receiving a nominal military post appointment (K.
The deportation was a disaster for the Bohais: many fled to Korea (Xinluo) and to Jurchen
(Liao shi 3: 3a).