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in the courts of bourgeois states, nonprofessional judges who participate in criminal—and in some countries, civil—trials. Jurors constitute a body distinct from that of professional judges. In Italy, France, and the Federal Republic of Germany, jurors (lay judges) and learned judges are members of the same tribunals.

As a rule, jurors who sit on criminal cases bring in a verdict on the guilt or innocence of the accused, while jurors in civil cases decide questions of fact. The jury already existed at the time of slaveholding states, but jury trials acquired an important role only in the period of the bourgeois revolutions, when they became a weapon of the bourgeoisie in its struggle against the feudal order. By designating jurors “representatives of the people” in the courts, the bourgeoisie strove to limit, in its own interests, the rights of judges of the Crown and to “fill in gaps in the law with the expansive bourgeois conscience” (K. Marx in K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch., vol. 8, p. 491).

Jurors were always selected or designated according to certain qualifying conditions, that is, from among property owners. In prerevolutionary Russia, for example, after the introduction of juries in 1864, a rather high property qualification was established for jurors. In addition, jurors were tested for loyalty.

In Great Britain, jurors must be no less than 21 years of age; they must be registered voters; and they must either own property that brings in an annual income of no less than £100 or be tenants of houses that bring in incomes of £200 to £300. Candidates for juries in the USA must be no less than 21 years of age; they must have resided in a given county for no less than a year; and they must know the English language. Teachers, physicians, and in some states railroad workers and journalists are barred from jury service.

References in periodicals archive ?
Chanti told jurors after declaring the mistrial that they were free to talk to anyone about the case.
Another dilemma is that jurors digitally linked to the outside world may receive unsolicited information relating to the trial from friends and family who know about their jury service.
A professional magistracy trained in syllogism and deductive reasoning, dedicated to the strict application of a set of rules enumerated in the legal codes, confronted a rising number of verdicts rendered by jurors whose conviction intime seemed to disregard not only the letter but the spirit of the law.
Jurors have one case, and they want to get it right.
And, where communication, both nonverbal and verbal, must be effective and persuasive, jurors must perceive such presentations as truthful and competent.
A "building block" approach to educating jurors often is effective because it starts with simple concepts and adds slightly more complex concepts, one at a time, until the entire situation has been presented.
The first strategy was to use content experts as jurors in the selection of research related to practice, validation of content for each content area, and development of content maps.
Liverpool crown court is one of 14 across the country giving people the chance to log on to the Juror Online Service.
Recognition of the preconceived notions that jurors use in assessing the company's responsibility for workplace behavior will lead to better analysis of the risks and more success in the courtroom.
Like children of yesteryear, jurors should be seen and not heard -- until it's time to ask for their verdict at the end of the criminal trial.