Justinian II


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Justinian II

(Justinian Rhinotmetus), 669–711, Byzantine emperor (685–95, 705–11), son and successor of Constantine IV. He successfully invaded Arab territory but lost the advantage through a truce that ceded much of Asia Minor to the Arabs. His extravagance and despotism and his ministers' extortions caused a revolution (695). Justinian had his nose cut off; hence he was given the epithet Rhinotmetus [Gr.,=with the cut-off nose]. He was then exiled. Restored (705) with the help of the Bulgars, he was deposed and beheaded. A series of usurpers occupied the throne from 711. In 717 Leo III established a new dynasty.

Justinian II

 

(nickname, Rhinotmetus). Born circa 670 in Constantinople; died Dec. 11, 711. Byzantine emperor from 685 to 695 and from 705.

Justinian sought to strengthen central authority. He suppressed the separatist tendencies of the large outlying cities, raised taxes, and waged a struggle against heretical movements in Asia Minor. In the late 680’s he conducted a series of campaigns in Thrace and Macedonia; he subjugated the Slavs who had settled there, some of whom he resettled in Asia Minor. Justinian warred against the Umayyads; he was forced to relinquish Armenia after the defeat of Byzantine forces in 692.

In 695, Justinian was overthrown by conspirators. His nose was cut off (hence his nickname “Rhinotmetus” [literally, “one whose nose has been cut off”]), and he was exiled to Chersonesus. He later escaped, fleeing first to the Khazars and then to Bulgaria; with the help of the Bulgarian khan he recovered the throne in 705. In 711, Justinian was overthrown again and executed.

References in periodicals archive ?
It was in this context that Emperor Justinian II (685-695, 705-711) as "the Guardian of the Orthodox Faith" and the holder of the highest sacral-political power convoked the Trullan Council.
First of all, through dialogue between Emperor Justinian II and Pope Constantine I, an oral compromise was reached at Nicomedia in 711, which led to the papal approval of the Trullan Council, albeit with a proviso concerning "the privileges of the [Roman] Church.
He regarded this council as the second session of the Sixth Ecumenical Council: "the first was held under Emperor Constantine IV, but it issued no canons; and the second, held under his son Emperor Justinian II, issued the above-mentioned canons.
It is no coincidence that this is in the period of Justinian II, the first emperor to put Christ on his coinage, using the bearded Zeus look that evolved into the standard Byzantine image of Christ the Pantokrator.
When Emperor Justinian II convoked the Council of Trullo (in Constantinople) in 691, the practice of married priests and bishops had become dominant in that region.
Son of Caliph Marwan I and fifth Umayyad caliph of Islam; suppressed revolt of dissident Muslims (685-690); reconquered Iraq and defeated Mus'ab ibn-Zubayr at the battle of the Tigris, near Basra (al Basrah) (690); reconquered Arabia, bringing it firmly under Umayyad control; warred intermittently with Byzantine emperor Justinian II (690-692) and won a great victory at the battle of Sebastopolis (692), thereby securing Armenia and Colchis (western Georgia) as well as partial control of Cyprus; he coined the first Arab money, established Arabic as the official language of the caliphate, and reformed the administration as well.