Corchorus

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Related to Jute Mallow: Corchorus olitorius, Corchorus capsularis
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Corchorus

 

a genus of plants of the family Tiliaceae. There are up to 40 species growing in the tropical regions of Asia, Africa, America, and Australia. Two annual species, Desi jute (Corchorus olitorius) and India jute (C. capsularis), are grown for their fibers. The plants are up to 3.5 m tall with erect, branching stems, taproots, and alternate, ovatelanceolate, dentate leaves with appendages. The flowers are small, bisexual, and yellow, occurring singly or two to three in the leaf axils. The fruit is a ribbed pod; in C. olitorius it is in the form of a silique (5-10 cm long); and in C. capsularis it is almost spherical (1-2 cm). The seeds are small, usually brown, gray, or green. The plant thrives in warm, light, and moist conditions.

The fibers of the jute plant are widely used in making packing materials, furniture, and carpets. The dry jute stem is 20-25 percent fiber. In India, its place of origin, the leaves of the jute plant are used as food. The area of the world’s land used for growing jute in 1970 was more than 2.9 million hectares (ha), and the gross yield of fiber was approximately 3.7 million tons. India and Pakistan send the most jute to the world market. In the USSR varieties of Desi jute (Pervenets Uzbekistana and Uzbekskii 53) are grown in small areas in Middle Asia; the average harvest of dry stems is 95-100. centners per ha. The crop is treated with manure (10-15 tons per ha) and mineral fertilizers (in kg/ha): 90-120 N, 90-12. P2O5, and 60-90 K2O. To obtain fiber, jute is harvested when the first pod forms on 50 percent of the plants. The stalks are bound in sheaves, dried, and sent to fiber factories to be processed.

REFERENCES

Ioffe, R. Ia., and G. A. Pereverzev. “Dzhut.” In the collection Lubianye kul’tury. Edited by S. S. Berlend. Moscow, 1955.
Zhukovskii, P. M. Kul’turnye rasteniia i ikh sorodichi, 2nd ed. Leningrad, 1964. Page 459.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Amaranth, nightshade and jute mallow are the most cultivated species.
Just as observed in the markets and household farm production, cowpea leaves and jute mallow were still the most popular indigenous vegetables among the 9 varieties that had been consumed by the 120 households surveyed.
This study set out to investigate the response of jute mallow seeds to different storage conditions.
Storage methods affect the quality of jute mallow seeds.
Jute mallow seed samples were collected from farmers in Kakamega and Siaya Counties using scientific germplasm collection techniques during the month of December 2004.
Average seed moisture levels before storage for both jute mallow morphotypes were 11% in Siaya County and 12 % in Kakamega County.
Effect of storage methods and seasons on seed quality of red leafed jute mallow morphotype
Few studies on genetics of leaf yield and its components have been conducted on Jute mallow; however, only few accessions have been used [11, 14, 20].
Thus, in order to improve leaf yield of Jute mallow, the knowledge required is not only that of the diversity and genetic variability of the available germplasm but also that of genetic architecture of leaf yield and its components.
Ninety accessions of Jute mallow (Corchorus spp.) were provided by the seed repository of the World Vegetable Center, Eastern and Southern Africa, for these experiments (Table 1).
During vegetative growth, measurements of leaves and stem were recorded following Jute mallow descriptor list of WorldVeg [21].
Germplasm collections from underutilized traditional vegetables such as Jute mallow can be an important step in breeding for improvement of the crop [23, 24].