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(Decimus Junius Juvenalis) (jo͞o`vənəl), fl. 1st to 2d cent. A.D., Roman satirical poet. His verse established a model for the satire of indignation, in contrast to the less harsh satire of ridicule of Horace. Little is known about his life except that during much of it he was desperately poor. A tradition tells that as a youth he was banished from court for satirizing an imperial favorite; later his work reveals a deep hatred for the Emperor Domitian. He is known chiefly for his 16 satires, which contain a vivid representation of life in Rome under the empire. They were probably written in the years between A.D. 100 and A.D. 128. The biting tone of his diatribes has seldom been equaled. From the stern point of view of the older Roman standards he powerfully denounces the lax and luxurious society, the brutal tyranny, the affectations and immorality of women, and the criminal excesses of Romans as he saw them, especially in his earlier years. The rhetorical form of his verse is finished, exact, and epigrammatic, furnishing many sayings that have become familiar through quotation.


See translations by R. Humphries (1958), G. G. Ramsay (rev ed. 1961), and P. Green (1967, repr. 1974); studies by I. G. Scott (1927), G. Highet (1955, repr. 1961); M. Coffey, Roman Satire (1976, 2d ed. 1989).



(full Latin name, Decimus Junius Juvenalis). Born circa AD. 60 in Aquinum, near Rome; died circa 127 in Egypt. Roman satiric poet.

Juvenal wrote 16 satires in five books; the last satire was left unfinished. The satires of the first three books are stinging denunciations of Roman society, while those of books four and five are more detached soliloquies on moral themes in the manner of Stoicism

Juvenal’s view of the world, presented from the vantage point of the little man, is pessimistic. He writes of the tyranny of emperors and the stupidity of the masses with equal bitterness. His satires are grimly accusatory in tone and characterized by numerous digressions and such striking turns of speech as “bread and circuses.” According to tradition, Juvenal died in exile.


Satirae. Edited by U. Knoche. Munich, 1950.
In Russian translation:
Satiry. Moscow, 1888.
Satiry. Moscow-Leningrad, 1937.


Istoriia rimskoi literatury. Edited by N. F. Deratani. Moscow, 1954.
Highet, G. Juvenal the Satirist. Oxford, 1954.


Latin name Decimus Junius Juvenalis. ?60--?140 ad, Roman satirist. In his 16 verse satires, he denounced the vices of imperial Rome
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Por cierto, que no solo el alma de Seneca se escapo, parece que el cuerpo Juvenal no aguanto mas.
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Honors students in particular can, like Juvenal, appreciate the implicit irony in its misuse.
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Satire's ability to adapt to historical circumstances has proved a valuable survival strategy, and its nature as an ideological check and balance has proved equally vital; in such a calm and yet contentious period, as Juvenal states, "It is difficult not to write satire" (difficile est saturam non scribere: 1.
Ellos buscaban presionar al presidente Alan Garcia para que acuda a la Corte Internacional de Justicia de la Haya La idea es pedirle a dicho tribunal que resuelva la controversia de limites maritimos con Chile en el Pacifico, dijo el legislador nacionalista Juvenal Ordonez Peru sostiene que los limites maritimos no han sido aun definidos, mientras Chile afirma que esa frontera quedo fijada por dos tratados internacionales suscritos en 1952 y 1954, que Peru considera solo como acuerdos pesqueros.
1994: Rwandan Hutu president Juvenal Habyarimana was killed when his plane was shot down, leading to the genocide in which 800,000 people were killed.
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With characteristic generosity, the Earl softened the blow with a gift of money, a kindness Dryden gratefully acknowledged in the preface to his Satires of Juvenal and Persius (1693), another work dedicated to Dorset:
It began on April 6, 1994, after a plane carrying the president of Rwanda, a Hutu named Juvenal Habyarimana, was shot down.
1) satirist in the classical manner (albeit in prose) of Horace, Juvenal, and company, halfway in the Christian context between Tertullian ("une ame de colere et de passion"--P.